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Full text of "Nine years of the League of Nations, 1920- 1928 (Ninth yearbook"

i NE YEARS 



\i ; 



MAT 



920-28 



5>y Dersys P. Myers 



ORLD if -tACE. FOUNDATION 



UNIVERSITY 
OF FLORIDA 
LIBRARY 




orlb ^eace Jfounbatton 

40 MT. VERNON STREET, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 
Founded in 1910 by Edwin Ginn 




HPHE Foundation operates upon the policy 
*■ that the actual facts concerning international 
relations and official international cooperation 
constitute the best possible arguments for lasting 
peace and improved international understanding. 
Its activities are, therefore, focused upon the 
task of making these facts available in clear and 
undistorted form. 



Board of Trustees 
William H. P. Faunce, President 

Willis J. Abbot Stephen P. Duggan 

George W. Anderson Manley O. Hudson 

Frank Aydelotte A. Lawrence Lowell 

George H. Blakeslee George A. Plimpton 

John H. Clarke Jeremiah Smith, Jr. 

General Staff 
Raymond T. Rich, General Secretary 
Denys P. Myers Holland Hudson 

Director of Research Distribution Manager 

Marie J. Carroll Mary J. MacDonald 

Chief, Reference Service Treasurer 



NINE. YEARS 

OF THE 

LEAGUE OF NATIONS 

1920-28 

(NINTH YEARBOOK) 

By DENYS P. MYERS 



\as» )< -5^ 



WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION PAMPHLETS 

40 MT. VERNON 5TREET, BOSTON 

vol. xii 1929 no. i 



Copyright, 1929 

By World Peace Foundation 

Boston, Massachusetts 



• . « < 

■ ■ 



'-:■ 

4 



• 






CONTENTS 

I. What the League of Nations is 
Engagements under Covenant 
The conference method of operation 
Prevention of war .... 
The League and International Relations 

II. Organs of the League 

1. Members of the League 

States not Members . 

2. Organs 

The Assembly . 
The Council 
The Secretariat 

3. Finances of the League . 

4. Registration of Treaties 

III. Promotion of International Cooperation 

1. Economic and Financial Organization 

The Economic Organization 
World Economic Conference 
Economic Consultative Committee 
Economic Committee 

Import and export prohibitions 

Customs formalities 

Arbitration of commercial disputes 

Unfair competition 

Unification of economic statistics 

Future conferences 
Financial Committee 

Financial reconstruction 
Counterfeiting of currency . 
Mixed Greco-Bulgarian Emigration 
Central Bank statistics 
Double taxation 

2. Organization for Communications and Transit 

Conferences .... 

Advisory and Technical Committee 

Conference of Press Experts 

Freedom of transit . 

Ports and maritime navigation . 

Inland navigation 

Transport by rail 

Electric questions 

Road traffic 

Calendar reform 

Adjustment of disputes 

The Straits Commission 

3. The Health Organization 

Composition of Organization 
Fight against epidemics 
Interchanges of public health officials 
Relations with special areas 
Standardizing sera 



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4^£b $7 



Malaria Commission 

Infant mortality 

Cancer 

Health insurance 

Tropical diseases 

4. Intellectual Cooperation 

International Institute 
University relations . 
Science and bibliography 
Arts and letters 
Intellectual rights 
Instruction of youth . 

5. Suppression of Opium Traffic 

International engagements 
Far Eastern control . 
Duties of the Committee 
Production in Persia . 
Administrative control 

6. Women and Children . 

Traffic in Women 

Child Welfare Committee 

Obscene publications . 

7. Refugees and Relief of Distress 

Greek Refugee Settlement Commission 
Bulgarian refugees 
International relief 

8. Mandates and Backward Peoples . 

Classes ..... 
Permanent Mandates Commission 
Operation of the system 
Slavery convention 

9. Protection of Minorities 

Treaty provisions 
Petitions . . . • 

Disputes arising under guaranties 
Albanian minority in Greece 
Moslems (Albanian) in Greece . 
Emigration commissions 

10. Administration of Territory . 

The Saar Basin 

Free City of Danzig . 

11. Progressive Codification of International 

Unification of Private Law 

IV. Achievement of Peace and Security 
1. Reduction of Armament 
Committees at work 
Preparation for conference . 
Other decisions . . . . 

Exercise of right of investigation 
• 2. Arbitration and Security 
General Act 

Mutual assistance and nonaggression 
Means for war prevention . 
• 3. Pacific Settlement of Disputes , 
Disputes handled 

Appendix: List of Meetings 



Law 



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NINE YEARS OF THE LEAGUE OF 
NATIONS, 1920-1928 



I. WHAT THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS IS 

The establishment of a League of Nations became one 
of the objectives of the World War. At the time the 
armistice of November 11, 1918, was concluded, this was 
accepted by all belligerents and neutrals as one of the 
essential subjects for the peace negotiations. 

The preliminary Peace Conference at its Second Plenary 
Sessionon January 25, 1919, passed a resolution declaring 
that "it is essential to the maintenance of the world 
settlement^. . . that a League of Nations be created" 
and that "this League should be treated as an integral 
part of the general treaty of peace." As a consequence, 
the conference appointed the Commission on the League 
of Nations under the chairmanship of Woodrow Wilson, 
President of the United States, which worked out a project 
in 10 sessions between February 3 and February 13. This 
project, elaborated by delegates of the United States, 
British Empire, France, Italy, Japan, Belgium, Brazil, 
China, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Poland, Portugal, Ru- 
mania and Serbia, was published on February 14, 1919, 
for the consideration of the world. Members of the com- 
mission met on March 20 and 21 to consider proposals 
from the following states which were neutral in the World 
War: Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Denmark, Netherlands, 
Norway, Paraguay, Persia, Salvador, Spain, Sweden, 
Switzerland and Venezuela. In five additional meetings 
on March 22, 24, 26, April 10 and 11, the Covenant of the 
League of Nations was completed and on April 28 accepted 
by a plenary session of the Peace Conference. 

The Covenant was incorporated into the treaties of 

[1] 



2 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

peace, and is Part I of the treaties with Germany, Austria, 
Bulgaria and Hungary. On the entrance of the first of 
these into force, on January 10, 1920, the Covenant ac- 
quired the character of a separate treaty. The deposit 
of ratifications of parties to the treaty of peace brought 
the Covenant into force on that day, giving legal existence 
to the League of Nations. As a result of that act, the 
accessions to the Covenant of Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, 
Persia and Spain came into force so that the League of 
Nations entered upon its legal existence on January 10, 
1920, at 4.15 p.m., with a membership of 24 states, 19 of 
which were parties to the treaty of peace: Australia, 
Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, British Empire, Canada, Czecho- 
slovakia, France, Guatemala, India, Italy, Japan, New 
Zealand, Panama, Peru, Poland, Siam, South Africa and 
Uruguay. 

By subsequent accessions and admissions under the terms 
of the Covenant, 1 it has been accepted by 56 states, of 
which two, Brazil and Costa Rica, have withdrawn. The 
latter is reassuming membership and the former, while 
maintaining its withdrawal, continues to "collaborate." 

Engagements under Covenant 
The states Members of the League have taken engage- 
ments in the Covenant, each for itself and toward the 
others, "in order to promote international cooperation 
and to achieve international peace and security," to the 
following effect : 

1. Each Member on admission "shall give effective guaranties 
of its sincere intention to observe its international obligations, 
and shall accept such regulations as may be prescribed by the 
League in regard to its military, naval and air forces and arma- 
ments" (Art. 1, par. 2). 

2. Each Member recognizes "that the maintenance of peace 
requires (a) the reduction of national armaments to the lowest 
point consistent with national safety and (b) the enforcement by 
common action of international obligations" (Art. 8, par. 1). 

i See p. 14. 
12] 



WHAT THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS IS 3 

3. Each agrees "that the manufacture by private enterprise of 
munitions and implements of war is open to grave objections" 
(Art. 8, par. 5). 

4. Each undertakes "to interchange full and frank information 
as to [a] the scale of their armaments, [b] their military, naval and 
air programs, and [c] the condition of such of their industries as 
are adaptable to warlike purposes" (Art. 8, par. 6). 

5. Each undertakes "to respect and preserve as against ex- 
ternal aggression the territorial integrity and existing political 
independence of all Members of the League" (Art. 10, par. 1). 

6. They declare "a matter of concern to the whole League" 
"any war or threat of war," with respect to which they "shall 
take any action that may be deemed wise and effectual to safe- 
guard the peace of nations" (Art. 11, par. 1). 

7. They declare it "to be the friendly right" of each . . . 
"to bring to the attention" of the bodies they set up "any cir- 
cumstance whatever . . . which threatens to disturb inter- 
national peace or the good understanding between nations upon 
which peace depends" (Art. 11, par. 2). 

_ 8. They "agree that . . . they will submit . . . any dispute 
likely to lead to a rupture . . . either to arbitration or judicial 
settlement or to inquiry" (conciliation) (Art. 12, par. 1). 

9. "They agree in no case to resort to war until three months 
after" the result of such submission is known (Art. 12, par. 1). 

10. They "agree that . . . they will submit the whole subject 
matter to arbitration or judicial settlement" in the case of any 
dispute which "they recognize to be suitable" for such procedure 
(Art. 13, par. if. 

11. They "agree that they will carry out in full good faith any 
award or decision that may be rendered" (Art. 13, par. 4). 

12. They agree that they "will not resort to war against a 
Member of the League which complies" with such award or 
decision (Art. 13, par. 4). 

^ 13. They "agree that they will submit" to the Council for con- 
ciliation "any dispute likely to lead to a rupture, which is not 
submitted to arbitration or judicial settlement" (Art. 15, par. 1). 

14. They "agree that they will not go to war with any party 
to the dispute which complies with the recommendations of the 
report" of the Council, if this is unanimously agreed to by the 
Council, exclusive of the disputant states (Art. 15, par. 6). 

15. They "reserve to themselves the right to take such action 
as they shall consider necessary for the maintenance of right and 

[3] 



4 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

justice," if the Council, exclusive of the disputant states, fails to 
attain unanimity (Art. 15, par. 7). 

16. Should any member disregard agreements Nos. 8 to 14 and 
resort to war, "it shall ipso facto be deemed to have committed 
an act of war against all other members." They undertake 
"immediately to subject it to the severance of all trade or financial 
relations," as well as to insure "the prevention of all financial, 
commercial or personal intercourse" with it (Art. 16, par. 1). 

17. They "agree that they will mutually support one another" 
in these respects (Art. 16, par. 3). 

18. They obligate themselves to register for immediate publica- 
tion "every treaty or international engagement" with the Secre- 
tariat. No such document "shall be binding until so registered" 
(Art. 18). 

19. They grant to the Assembly the faculty of advising them to 
reconsider "treaties which have become inapplicable" (Art. 19). 

20. They grant to the Assembly the faculty of considering 
"international conditions whose continuance might endanger the 
peace of the world" (Art. 19). 

21. They agree that the "Covenant is accepted as abrogating 
all" inconsistent obligations. They accept as a duty the procur- 
ing "of release from such obligations" (Art. 20). 

22. They "solemnly undertake" not to "enter into any engage- 
ments inconsistent" with the terms of the Covenant (Art. 20). 

23. They establish "the principle that the well-being and de- 
velopment" of "peoples not yet able to stand by themselves under 
the strenuous conditions of the modern world" are "a sacred trust 
of civilization." The "tutelage of such peoples" is "intrusted to 
advanced nations" and "exercised by them as mandatories on 
behalf of the League" (Art. 22, pars. 1 and 2). 

24. They will "endeavor 1 to secure and maintain fair and 
humane conditions of labor for men, women and children," and 
"will establish and maintain the necessary international organ- 
izations" 2 (Art. 23a). 

25. They "undertake 1 to secure just treatment of the native 
inhabitants of territories under their control" (Art. 236). 

26. They "intrust 1 the League with the general supervision over 
the execution of agreements with regard to the traffic in women 
and children" (Art. 23c). 

i "Subject to and in accordance with the provisions of international conventions, 
existing or hereafter to be agreed upon." 

2 For the realization of this engagement, see Industry, Governments and Labor, World 
Peace Foundation Pamphlets, Vol. XI, Nos. 4-5. 

[4] 



WHAT THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS IS 5 

27. They "intrust 1 the League with the general supervision of 
the execution of agreements with regard to . . . the traffic in 
opium and other dangerous drugs" (Art. 23c). 

28. They "intrust 1 the League with the general supervision of 
the trade in arms and ammunition" (Art. 23d). 

29. They "make provision 1 to secure and maintain freedom of 
communications and transit ... for the commerce of all" 
(Art. 23e). 

30. They "make provision 1 to secure and maintain . 
equitable treatment for the commerce of all" (Art. 23e). 

31. They "endeavor 1 to take steps in matters of international 
concern for the prevention and control of disease" (Art. 23/). 

32. They place "under the direction of the League all inter- 
national bureaus already established by general treaties," if the 
parties consent (Art. 24, par. 1). 

33. They stipulate that all international bureaus and com- 
missions for the regulation of matters of international interest 
constituted after January 10, 1920, shall be placed under the 
direction of the League (Art. 24, par. 1). 

34. They "agree to encourage and promote the establishment 
and cooperation of" authorized voluntary national Red Cross 
organizations to improve health, prevent disease and mitigate 
suffering (Art. 25). 

The Conference Method of Operation 
The League of Nations can best be understood if it is 
realized that it is not closely comparable with other in- 
stitutions. It consists of states associating themselves 
together under specified conditions for the accomplishment 
of purposes of common interest. These purposes and the 
standards of action which the Member states have agreed 
to accept as a basis of their association are those set forth 
in the Covenant as analyzed above. Some of those en- 
gagements address themselves primarily to the individual 
action of the Member state; the consensus of action of 
the Members and their experience in working together 
contribute to a fuller interpretation of these engagements. 
Other engagements state objectives which Member states 

» •; Subject to and in accordance with the provisions of international conventions 
existing or hereafter to be agreed upon." b ' 

[5] 



6 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

seek to attain; these become the subject of investigations 
especially organized within the machinery of the League 
and are constantly productive of international conferences 
for developing specific international agreements. 

In view of the general standards of conduct adopted by 
them in the Covenant and the fundamental purposes of 
the League, Member states have felt free to agree addi- 
tionally between themselves to leave many matters calcu- 
lated to promote international cooperation or to achieve 
a greater degree of peace and security to its organs. Among 
instances of duties assigned to the League by such inde- 
pendent action of Member states may be cited the treaties, 
declarations and clauses establishing regimes for the pro- 
tection of minorities; the financial reconstruction of 
Austria and Hungary; the Greek Refugee Settlement 
Scheme; the administration of the Saar Basin, the Free 
City of Danzig and Upper Silesia. Not infrequently the 
common objectives sought result in opposite measures. 
General agreements frequently result in bilateral treaties 
in which Member states apply the principles determined 
at Geneva. Instances of such action are a series of sanitary 
conventions made between the states of Eastern Europe 
in 1922-23, the convention relating to nonfortification and 
neutralization of the Aaland Islands, and an extensive 
series of treaties for the pacific settlement of international 

disputes. 

To comprehend the League of Nations most readily, it 
is advisable to think of it as an instrument of the Member 
states for attaining a maximum of agreement on questions 
which the nations themselves recognize as having a common 
interest for them. The contracting parties provide in the 
Covenant that the machinery for conducting their common 
business shall be an Assembly, consisting of delegates of all 
Member states, and a Council, consisting of delegates of 
Member states representative of and acting on behalf of 
the entire Membership (Arts. 3 and 4). Both the As- 
sembly and Council take their decisions by unanimous vote, 
unless there is a specific provision to the contrary or the 

[6] 



WHAT THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS IS 7 

matter is one of procedure (Art. 5). The persons compos- 
ing both "render their decisions as the representatives of 
their respective states, and . . . have no standing except 
as such representatives." With respect both to the status 
of persons and the character of the vote, the two organs 
are, therefore, constructed on the basis of international 
conferences. 

The Secretariat performs secretarial duties for the 
Assembly and Council and for bodies called into being by 
their decisions. This organ of the League is analogous to 
the civil service of a national government in that it serves 
the League as a whole rather than particular Member states. 

In general, the experience of the states Members of the 
League of Nations since 1920 has indicated that the ob- 
jectives of the Covenant are broad enough to enable them 
to seek agreement through it upon any question of common 
interest. 

As questions of diverse character are considered, ma- 
chinery adapted to securing appropriate results has been 
created. The Assembly, which meets annually, is not a 
continuing body, and it consequently devolves upon the 
Council to manage current business. The Council, usually 
after consulting the Assembly, has set up a series of ad- 
visory committees "for the purpose of facilitating the task 
of the Assembly and the Council ... on the one hand, 
and on the other hand to assist Members of the League 
by establishing direct contact between their technical 
representatives in the various spheres, to fulfill their 
international duties." These committees differ in their 
composition according to the objects sought. For the 
most part, committees consist of unofficial experts, diversi- 
fied as to nationality and professional qualifications. Em- 
phasis is thus given to "enough independence and flexi- 
bility to make them effectively useful to the Members of 
the League." In cases where the fundamental necessity 
is to develop agreement among Governments or to commit 
Governments to decisions, the membership of a committee 
is drawn from official life. 

[7] 



8 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

A committee is served by an expert section of the Secre- 
tariat, which works under its direction. The committee 
thus aided collects facts and elaborates conclusions, subject 
to confirmation by the Council. Nationals of non-Member 
states, especially the United States, have for several years 
taken an active part in the work of the committees. Annual 
reports on the work of each committee are made to the As- 
sembly, which frequently indicates the direction which the 
Member'states as a whole desire to see taken in future work. 

Confirmation of the conclusions of a committee by the 
Assembly may constitute a sufficient international agree- 
ment upon a subject. 1 In such a case, the Assembly acts 
as an international conference, and the representatives of 
Member states, in addition to their credentials as Assembly 
delegates, are furnished with full powers for signing or 
accepting the document in question. More frequently 
the conclusions of a committee are of a character requiring 
the convening of a special conference to enable states to 
conclude an acceptable agreement. States non-Members 
of the League are invited to such conferences. They dif- 
fer from conferences not held under League auspices only 
in respect to the more careful and thorough preparation 
afforded and the great advantage of being served by a 
thoroughly trained and continuous Secretariat. 

Prevention of War 

The conference method described above is followed in 
handling the bulk of the work done by the League of Na- 
tions. Its object is "to promote international coopera- 
tion and to achieve international peace and security" by 
facilitating "the firm establishment of the understandings 
of international law" as the actual rule of conduct among 
Governments. It produces a body of agreement which 
can command the "scrupulous respect for all treaty obli- 

i Instances are the Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice, adopted 
by the First Assembly; the international slavery convention, adopted by the Sixth 
Assembly; the convention for the execution of arbitral clauses in commercial matters, 
adopted by the Eighth Assembly; the general act and model conventions on pacific 
settlement of international disputes, nonaggression and mutual assistance adopted 
by the Ninth Assembly. 

[8] 



WHAT THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS IS 9 

gations in the dealing of organized peoples with one 
another." These activities are recognized as facilitating 
"the acceptance of obligations not to resort to war" in that 
they prescribe through voluntary agreement "open, just 
and honorable relations between nations," which are 
calculated to forestall the development of conditions 
which might encourage resort to war. 

Though the 60 international conventions developed by 
the League of Nations in nine years through the machinery 
described above are very diverse in character, they all 
contribute to the promotion of cooperation between the 
peoples of the world. 

Member states of the League of Nations accepted in the 
Covenant specific undertakings with respect to the re- 
duction of armament and the employment and develop- 
ment of the pacific settlement of international disputes. 
The reduction of armament in its multiform complications 
has been handled by the conference system described. 
The pacific settlement of international disputes, which does 
away with the occasion for resort to war, has been exten- 
sively developed under the influence of the League, while 
the Covenant itself gives to the Council (and sometimes the 
Assembly) special authority from the Member states for 
jurisdiction over international disputes. The activities of 
the League in this field include matters on which public 
attention has been widely focused. Questions of great 
interest and of high importance have come under the 
jurisdiction of the Council. 

Bilateral relations between states Members of the League 
continue in full measure to be conducted between govern- 
ments. It is only that portion of the foreign relations of 
governments which can be satisfactorily handled solely in 
multilateral negotiations that falls within the scope of the 
League. 

A possible exception to this general rule is recognized 
by an agreement in the Covenant which provides that 
"any dispute likely to lead to a rupture" between Mem- 
bers of the League is to be submitted to some form of 

[9] 



10 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

pacific settlement. The forms specified are arbitration, 
judicial settlement and inquiry by the Council. Disputes 
are normally referred to the League for inquiry by the 
Council. The method of judicial settlement is provided 
for in the Permanent Court of International Justice, to 
which states become parties by the normal process of rati- 
fying a treaty document. The other method of pacific 
settlement specified is that of arbitration. The functioning 
of the League has facilitated and encouraged the develop- 
ment of this method of pacific settlement, which is supple- 
mented by conciliation through a commission of inquiry. 

As other methods have come into existence, the exclu- 
sive importance of inquiry by the Council has decreased. 
The statutory jurisdiction of the Permanent Court of In- 
ternational Justice had been widened up to June 15, 1928, 
by the provisions of 250 bilateral and multilateral treaties. 1 
The wide variety of international conventions negotiated 
under the auspices of the League, or otherwise, since 1920 
has reformed international practice or solved international 
problems on a large number of frictional subjects. The 
conventions accomplishing these ends have uniformly 
contained a clause providing that any dispute with respect 
to the interpretation or application of the document shall 
be left to the decision of the Permanent Court of Inter- 
national Justice. Special jurisdiction has been created for 
special problems; for instance, in the convention on im- 
port and export prohibitions and restrictions, provisions 
are made for the conciliatory or arbitral settlement of 
disputes arising from it and specially adapted to the issues 
involved. Member states have extensively included such 
clauses in bilateral treaties and have both developed and 
adjusted methods of pacific settlement to their own needs 
by the conclusion of bilateral treaties of pacific settlement. 
The totality of these developments result in reducing the 
area of international life from which disputes within the 
cognizance of the League might arise. While the possibility 
of disputes reaching a stage where they should, under the 

i Publications of the Permanent Court. Fourth Annual Report, p. 79-138, 413 
(Series E, No. 4). 



WHAT THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS IS 11 

Covenant, be submitted to the Council has thus decreased, 
the Member states retain in full force the provision to refer 
disputes to the League in case other methods fail to solve 
such difficulties. 

The League and International Relations 

The Members of the League have more and more come 
to view it as a forum for the discussion of their mutual 
interests and a mechanism for the solution of their mutual 
problems. The permanence of the Secretariat and the 
constant functioning of committees under the direction of 
the Council have provided the framework realizing such 
objects. The Assembly meets automatically each year on 
the first Monday in September. The Council meets 
normally four times each year. In the early days of the 
League, postwar problems were to the front, and the 
continuity of League action had much to do with the 
ability to handle them promptly and systematically. In 
the realm of agreements of a permanent nature, the early 
years were characterized by the employment of the ma- 
chinery for establishing general principles, such as those 
on freedom of transit. In each avenue of activity, there 
has been a steady development toward the handling of 
problems which are highly technical and which touch more 
intimately the national practice or policy of Member states. 

As this situation has developed, it has become the general 
practice of the states to send foreign ministers to Geneva 
as representatives on the Council. The delegations to the 
Assembly in recent years have included 20 to 25 heads of 
cabinets or ministers of foreign affairs, in addition to other 
ministers. As a consequence of the presence of such 
officials at Geneva, meetings of the Assembly and Council 
since 1924 have sometimes been quite as important because 
of the negotiations taking place outside of the League 
organization as for the decisions made at its meetings. 
Foreign ministers, who could not visit other capitals with- 
out arousing speculation, find it possible to discuss in per- 
son with ministers from other countries questions of mutual 

[11] 



12 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

concern. Such meetings have very often been of world- 
wide importance and have amounted to special conferences, 
for example, in 1925, during the Assembly, when some 
negotiations respecting the subsequent Locarno treaties 
took place, and again in 1928 when cabinet members of 
the states interested in reparation and the Rhine occupa- 
tion reached an agreement respecting procedure on those 
subjects. The League of Nations has nothing to do with 
such meetings, but its periodic gatherings simply afford the 
opportunity for those concerned to meet for discussion. 
Nevertheless, the existence of the League contributes to 
the success of such outside negotiations. The value of 
Geneva as a meeting place is appreciated, because it af- 
fords not only neutral ground, but an essentially friendly 
one. Ministers who might never otherwise meet each other 
become acquainted with each other in their attendance at 
League meetings, and the acquaintance enables them to 
dispatch their special business. Two ministers sitting at 
the same table in the morning on international business 
find themselves in a hotel room in the afternoon discussing 
national business. During the afternoon both of them 
may be aware that in the morning they will have the duty 
of preparing a League report together. The habit of in- 
ternational cooperation in the League, they testify, facili- 
tates better understanding of their national problems. 

The first week or ten days of the Assembly sessions are 
devoted to a general debate on the report on the work of 
the Council and of the Secretariat and on the measures 
taken to execute decisions of the Assembly. Each country 
has a free opportunity to discuss any questions which it 
wishes. With some 300 press representatives in the gallery, 
the Assembly hall acts as a sounding board to all the 
world. Delegates of Members make use of this fact to 
explain satisfactory or unsatisfactory positions in which 
they find themselves, to define their attitude toward in- 
ternational action, to defend their national action or to 
complain of conditions which they deem reparable. This 
is a new factor in international relations. 

[12] 



II. ORGANS OF THE LEAGUE 
1. Members of the League 

The contracting states are defined in the Covenant as 
Members of the League of Nations. 

Members of the League are "original" or "admitted." 
Original Members are named in an annex to the Covenant 
in two groups. The first group acquired membership by 
ratification of the treaties of peace, in which the text of 
the Covenant appears. This first group were signatories 
"of the first part" of the treaties of peace. The second 
group, consisting of neutrals in the World War which were 
not parties to the treaties of peace, acceded to the Covenant 
as a separate document, without reservations. 1 

Admitted Members consist of any other "fully self- 
governing state, dominion or colony" whose "admission is 
agreed to by two-thirds of the Assembly." An admitted 
member "shall give effective guaranties of its sincere 
intention to observe its international obligations, and 
shall accept such regulations as may be prescribed by the 
League in regard to its military, naval and air forces and 
armaments." 

Growth. The League of Nations formally came into 
being by the official deposit of the ratifications of the 
treaty of Versailles at the French Foreign Office, at Paris 
on January 10, 1920, at 4.15 p.m. By that deposit 24 states > 
became the first members of the League of Nations. 

Within the next two months 42 of the states named in 
the Annex to the Covenant had become original Members 
of the League. The signatories of a treaty of peace ac- 
quired that status by ratification in accordance with con- 
stitutional practices. Those which were not signatories of 

7 innw°T ^^"sof ratifications, see Three Months of the League of Nations, p 
7-10 (this Series III Nos. 1-2). The recognition of Switzerland's perpetual ne£ 
reservaUon' 68 ° ** ^^ dated FebrUary 13 * 1920 ' is not regarded as a 

2 See p. 2. 

[13] 



14 



WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 



such a treaty acceded to the Covenant as a separate in- 
strument after the parliamentary adoption of an act 
authorizing such accession. 

States admitted to the League by vote of the Assembly 
have based their applications upon parliamentary or gov- 
ernmental action, having the effect of a conditional ratifi- 
cation of the Covenant previous to action by the Assembly. 

Members of the League of Nations, January 1, 1929 — 54 



State 
Abyssinia 
Albania 
Argentina 
Australia 
Austria 
Belgium 
Bolivia 
[Brazil * 

British Empire 

Bulgaria 

Canada 

Chile 

China 

Colombia 

[Costa Rica 2 

Cuba 

Czechoslovakia 

Denmark 



Member from 
Sept. 28, 1923 
Dec. 17, 1920 
Jan. 10, 1920 
Jan. 10, 1920 
Dec. 15, 1920 
Jan. 10, 1920 
Jan. 10, 1920 
Jan. 10, 1920- 
June 13, 1928] 
Jan. 10, 1920 
Dec. 16, 1920 
Jan. 10, 1920 
Jan. 10, 1920 
July 16, 1920 
Feb. 16, 1920 
Dec. 16, 1920- 
Dec. 31, 1926] 
March 8, 1920 
Jan. 10, 1920 
March 8, 1920 



State 

Dominican 
Republic 
Estonia 
Finland 
France 
Germany 
Greece 
Guatemala 
Haiti 
Honduras 
Hungary 
India 

Irish Free State 
Italy 
Japan 
Latvia 
Liberia 
Lithuania 
Luxemburg 
Netherlands 



Member from 

Sept. 29, 1924 
Sept. 22, 1921 
Dec. 16, 1920 
Jan. 10, 1920 
Sept. 8, 1926 
March 30, 1920 
Jan. 10, 1920 
June 30, 1920 
Nov. 3, 1920 
Sept. 18, 1922 
Jan. 10, 1920 
Sept. 10, 1923 
Jan. 10, 1920 
Jan. 10, 1920 
Sept. 22, 1921 
June 30, 1920 
Sept. 22, 1921 
Dec. 16, 1920 
March 9, 1920 



i Notice of withdrawal effective June 13, 1928, in accordance with telegram re- 
ceived June 12, 1926 (Monthly Summary, V, p. 135). A note from the Brazilian Gov- 
ernment of April 9, 1928, said: "I beg . . . the Council to consider my countryone 
of the most devoted collaborators of the League of Nations." Collaboration was "not 
only by occupying a seat in the Assembly or in the Council," but by recognizing the 
League's "service to civilization and to humanity," by joining "in the conferences 
through which the League of Nations strives for universal welfare by working out 
problems of general interest" and by preaching and practicing "the true policy of 
preserving peace ... by the employment of juridical solutions, by their disinterest- 
edness, by their amity and by their spirit of justice and concord." (Official Journal, 
IX, p. 778.) 

2 The acting president of the Council received a telegram from the Government of 
Costa Rica stating that on September 6, 1928, the council of ministers had agreed 
"to submit the matter [of resuming membership] to the Constitutional Congress, 
requesting it to vote the necessary funds for the payment of the contribution involved." 
(Records of the Ninth Assembly, Plenary Sessions, 16th plenary meeting). Correspond- 
ence respecting the Monroe doctrine had preceded on July 18 and September 1. 



[14] 



ORGANS OF THE LEAGUE 



15 



State 


Member from 


State 


Member from 


New Zealand 


Jan. 10, 1920 


Salvador 


March 10, 1920 


Nicaragua 


Nov. 3, 1920 


Serb-Croat- 




Norway 


March 7, 1920 


Slovene State Feb. 10, 1920 


Panama 


Jan. 10, 1920 


SlAM 


Jan. 10, 1920 


Paraguay 


Jan. 10, 1920 


South Africa 


Jan. 10, 1920 


Persia 


Jan. 10, 1920 


Spain * 


Jan. 10, 1920 


Peru 


Jan. 10, 1920 


Sweden 


March 9, 1920 


Poland 


Jan. 10, 1920 


Switzerland 


March 8, 1920 


Portugal 


April 8, 1920 


Uruguay 


Jan. 10, 1920 


Rumania 


Sept. 14, 1920 


Venezuela 


March 3, 1920 



Argentina's participation in the League has been an 
executive matter. Approval of the Covenant by the 
Congress had not taken place when the Government sent 
a delegation to the First Assembly. After several years' 
absence, the Government paid its back financial quota and 
has since participated generally in the work of the League. 

Costa Rica was admitted to the League by vote of the 
Assembly on December 16, 1920. Its financial quotas 
were in arrears in 1924, when the Fifth Assembly passed a 
resolution inviting the Secretary-General to make "further 
urgent representations to Costa Rica." On December 24, 
1924, Costa Rica paid all contributions due and announced 
an intention to withdraw, effective December 31, 1926. 
On March 9, 1928, the Council authorized its acting presi- 
dent to invite Costa Rica to reverse its decision. On 
July 19, 1928, the Costa Rican Government replied re- 
sponsively. However, it stated that "under Art. 21 of 
the Covenant, the international legal scope of the Monroe 
doctrine was extended." It desired, before acting on the 
invitation, "to know the interpretation placed by the 
League of Nations on the Monroe doctrine and the scope 
given to that doctrine when it was included in Art. 21 of 
the Covenant." The Council in reply on September 1 

1 Responsive to an invitation of the Council of March 9. 1928, the Spanish Govern- 
ment on March 22. 1928, decided not to withdraw from the League in accordance with 
its notxe of September 11, 1926 (Official Journal, VII, p. 1528). The Government in 
the note announcing its decision said: "We leave it to the Assembly to decide the form 
which Spain's cooperation should take and the position due to her in order that her 
r&le may be effectual and valuable and in consonance with her special situation as a 
great Power, which was neutral during the last war, and with her great past, as the 
creator of nations and civilizations." (Official Journal, IX, p. 603.) 

[15] 



16 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

cited Art. 20, by which the Members of the League agree 
to abrogate all understandings between themselves which 
are inconsistent with the terms of the Covenant. The ref- 
erence to the Monroe doctrine cited in Art. 21 "neither 
weakens nor limits any of the safeguards provided in the 
Covenant," and it can not have the effect of giving them a 
"sanction or validity" not previously possessed. It 
"confines itself to referring to these engagements, such as 
they may exist, without attempting to define them," for 
definition would be "liable to have the effect of restricting 
or enlarging their sphere of application." On September 
6, the Costa Rican Government telegraphed that the 
Council of Ministers had decided to submit the invitation 
to resume Membership of the League "to the constitutional 
congress, requesting it to vote the necessary funds for the 
payment of the contribution involved." 

Germany in 1919 requested admission to the League, 
which was refused by the Allied and Associated Govern- 
ments which were then in de facto control. 1 "The po- 
litical situation as it developed after the coming into force 
of the treaty of Versailles" prevented Germany from mak- 
ing a further proposal. The situation was changed by the 
London conference on reparation in August, 1924. A Ger- 
man council of ministers on September 23, 1924, unani- 
mously decided to seek an early entrance into the League. 
On September 29, Germany addressed to the Government 
of each Member of the Council a memorandum in which 
it requested to know its attitude respecting a German 
application for membership. This memorandum empha- 
sized : 

1. "Germany must possess the certainty that immediately upon 
her admission she will obtain a permanent seat on the Council;" 

2. "So long as the present inequality in armaments continues 
to exist, Germany — unlike other Members of the League — will 
not be in a position to take part in any coercive measures which 
may be undertaken by virtue of Art. 16;" 

iFor correspondence exchanged at that time see Sen. Doc. 149, 66th Cong., 1st 
sess., p. 14-30. 

[16 1 



ORGANS OF THE LEAGUE 17 

3. "The German Government is prepared to confirm by a formal 
declaration its sincere intentions to observe its international obli- 
gations;" 

4. Germany expects that in due time she "will be given an active 
share in the working of the mandate system." 

Full approval having been given to the German decision 
in the replies from the states represented on the Council, 
Germany formally brought the matter to the attention of 
the Council in a note of December 12, 1924. 1 On March 
14, 1925, 2 the Council replied. Respecting Council mem- 
bership, the Council noted that all Governments were "in 
complete agreement." With regard to the condition re- 
specting Art. 16, the Council pointed out that "it would 
be for Germany itself to say to what extent she was in a 
position to reply to the recommendations of the Council," 
in which she "would always have a voice in deciding the 
application of the principles of the Covenant." 

The German Reichstag on November 30, 1925, author- 
ized the Government "to take the steps necessary for the 
entrance of Germany into the League of Nations." This 
authorization was incorporated into the law approving the 
Locarno treaties. On February 8, 1926, 3 Germany for- 
mally applied for admission to the League. Attached to 
the application was a copy of the joint note of the Locarno 
states respecting Art. 16 of the Covenant. In this note, 
Germany was informed that the obligations on Members 
of the League "must be understood to mean that each 
state Member of the League is bound to cooperate loyally 
and effectively in support of the Covenant and in resistance 
to any active aggression to an extent that is compatible 
with its military situation and takes its geographical 
position into account." 

Following receipt of the German application, the Council 
convened an extraordinary session of the Assembly for 

1 Official Journal, VI, p. 323. The German memorandum is appended. 

2 Ibid., VI, p. 490. 

8 Records of the Special Assembly, p. 45. 

[17] 



18 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

March 8, 1926. The Assembly was informed l that the 
question of the status of the military, naval and air forces 
of Germany was regulated by the treaty of Versailles of 
June 28, 1919, and did not require to be examined, and that 
the Secretariat had been advised by the Conference of Am- 
bassadors that to the best of its knowledge, Germany was 
giving effective guaranties of her sincere intention to 
discharge her obligations under that treaty and the instru- 
ments connected therewith. The First Committee ac- 
cordingly submitted to the Assembly a unanimous report 
in favor of Germany's admission to the League. 

At its closing meeting on March 17, the Assembly was 
officially notified of difficulties which had arisen in the 
Council with regard to the granting of a permanent seat 
to Germany. 

The difficulties were in no wise due to Germany, which 
it had always been contemplated was to become a per- 
manent member of the Council on its admission. They 
were due to claims preferred for representation on the 
Council by Brazil brought forward as a condition of ac- 
cepting Germany as a permanent Council member. Since 
the Council was thus unable to agree unanimously upon 
admitting Germany alone as a permanent member of the 
Council and she was unwilling to be admitted to the League 
without that condition, the proceedings took the form of 
explanations, 2 closing with a resolution intended to prepare 
for the dissolution of the impasse. 3 

The unanimous report in favor of Germany's admission 
made by the First Committee of the Special Assembly 
was submitted to the Seventh Assembly in September, 
1926. A vote was taken by roll-call, as a result of which 
the admission of Germany into the League of Nations was 
unanimously approved on September 8, 1926, by the 48 
states participating in the vote. 4 On September 10, the 

1 For full text and accompanying documents, see Records of the Special Assembly, 
Official Journal, Spec. Sup. No. 42, p. 46. 

2 Records of the Special Assembly, p. 25, 29 for the Brazilian statement. 
« Ibid., p. 32. 

* Records of the Seventh Assembly, Plenary Meetings, p. 31. 

[18 1 



ORGANS OF THE LEAGUE 



19 



German delegation took its seat in the Assembly. After 
the president, M. Ninchich, had welcomed them, M. 
Stresemann, the head of the delegation and German 
minister of foreign affairs, made a speech which was re- 
plied to by the first French delegate, M. Briand. 1 These 
speeches were remarkable both for their eloquence and 
friendly tone and made a deep impression as the beginning 
of a real Franco-German policy of cooperation. 

Delegates to the League of Nations 

The existence of the League of Nations results in an 
almost continuous series of conferences and committee 
meetings at which Member and even nonmember states 
find it advantageous to have representatives. As a con- 
sequence, many states, especially those geographically dis- 
tant from Geneva, have found it beneficial for the con- 
duct of their international relations to make regular pro- 
vision for representation at Geneva. 

The following states have permanent representatives 
accredited to the League of Nations : 



Abyssinia 


Estonia 


Netherlands 


Albania 


Finland 


Nicaragua 


Argentine Republic 


Germany 


Paraguay 


Australia 


Greece 


Persia 


Austria 


Guatemala 


Poland 


Bulgaria 


Hungary 


Portugal 


Canada 


India 


Rumania 


Chile 


Irish Free State 


Serb- Croat-Slovene 


China 


Japan 


State 


Cuba 


Latvia 


Siam 


Czechoslovakia 


Liberia 


Sweden 


Denmark 


Lithuania 


Venezuela 


Dominican Republic 







With respect to the United States: 2 "The correspondence 
with the League is carried on by the American legation at 
Bern. Information on the activities of the League in 

1 Records of the Seventh Assembly, Plenary Meetings, p. 51. 

2 Frank B. Kellogg, Foreign Relations, p. 13 (Republican National Committee, 
Bulletin No. 5, 1928). 

[19] 



20 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

which this Government is not directly represented is ob- 
tained through the consulate in Geneva." 

Many states Members have reorganized their foreign 
offices so as to provide for a League of Nations section in 
the ministry with the special duty of conducting necessary 
business with Geneva. Those with such sections are: 



Austria 


Great Britian 


Peru 


Belgium 


Italy 


Salvador 


Cuba 


Japan 


Spain 


Denmark 


Lithuania 


Sweden 


Estonia 


Luxemburg 


Switzerland 


Finland 


Netherlands 


Uruguay 


France 


Persia 


Venezuela 


Germany 







States not Members — 9 

The states listed below would seem to be eligible for 
admission to the League of Nations according to the 
customary concepts of international law. 



Afghanistan 


Mexico 


Union of Socialist 


Brazil 


Nejd, Sultanate of 


Soviet Republics 


Ecuador 


Turkey 


United States 


Egypt 







All these states participate in specific conferences or com- 
mittees of the League and frequently respond to invitations * 
to accede to its international conventions. 

There are sundry territorial entities which do not exer- 
cise normal international attributes by reason of their size, 
paucity of international relations or relationship with other 
states. Liechtenstein, Monaco and San Marino applied 
for admission to membership in 1920. The Second As- 
sembly adopted a report from its First Committee that 
definite conditions should not be laid down in connection 
with small states until further experience was gained. 2 

1 For typical invitation see Official Journal, VI, p. 489. 

2 Records of Second Assembly, Plenary Meetings, p. 820. 

[20] 



ORGANS OF THE LEAGUE 21 

These three, Andorra, Iceland — in special relations with 
Denmark — and the Sudan have been invited to accede to 
conventions. 

2. Organs 

"Action of the League under this Covenant shall be 
effected through the instrumentality of an Assembly and 
of a Council, with a permanent Secretariat" (Covenant, 
Art. 2). 

The Assembly 

Organization. "The Assembly shall consist of represent- 
atives of the Members of the League." It meets annually 
at Geneva on the first Monday in September. It "may 
deal at its meetings with any matter within the sphere of 
action of the League or affecting the peace of the world. 
At meetings of the Assembly each Member of the League 
shall have one vote, and may have not more than three 
Representatives" (Covenant, Art. 3). 

A report adopted by the First Assembly on December 7, 
1920, stated that "it is impossible to consider the As- 
sembly as a chamber of deputies" or as invested "with the 
legislative power." l It is best thought of as a gathering 
of plenary state delegates. "Under the Covenant, rep- 
resentatives sitting on the . . . Assembly render their 
decisions as the representatives of their respective states, 
and in rendering such decisions they have no standing ex- 
cept as such representatives." 2 

Functions. The Assembly has certain duties peculiar to 
it under the Covenant. Among these are: 

Admission of new Member states, of which 14 have been 
favorably acted upon by a two-thirds vote. 

Election of nonpermanent Member states represented on 
the Council, an annually recurring duty. The elections 
take place by secret ballot and by majority vote. 

Approval of additional Members represented on the 
Council. One permanent additional Member of the 
Council was approved in 1926. Two additional nonper- 

1 Records of the First Assembly, Plenary Meetings, p. 318. 

2 Ibid., p. 320. 

[21] 



22 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

manent Members of the Council were approved by the 
Assembly of 1923 and three in 1926. 

Approval of the Council's nomination of a Secretary- 
General, a duty not yet exercised. 

Joint election with the Council of judges of the Perma- 
nent Court of International Justice. 

The agenda of an Assembly always includes: 1 

"A report on the work of the Council since the last ses- 
sion of the Assembly, on the work of the Secretariat, and 
on the measures taken to execute the decisions of the 
Assembly," on which there is extended debate; 

"Items . . . ordered ... by the Assembly at a previous 
session, items proposed by the Council and items proposed 
by any Member of the League; 

"The budget for the next fiscal period and the report 
on the accounts of the last fiscal period." 

Some questions "require the concurrence and action of 
the Governments concerned in the form of international 
conventions." On these it can not engage "the responsi- 
bility of the Governments represented at the Assembly, 
which is external to the Assembly," and its action takes 
"the form of a recommendation or invitation leading up 
to agreement between the Governments." 2 Thus the 
Assembly negotiated and referred to Governments for 
signature and ratification the Protocol of Signature cover- 
ing the Statute of the Permanent Court of International 
Justice (1920), Rules for establishing Conciliation Com- 
missions (1922), Protocol for Pacific Settlement of Inter- 
national Disputes (1924), Slavery Convention (1926), Con- 
vention on Execution of Arbitral Awards (1927), Model 
Conventions and General Act on Pacific Settlement of 
International Disputes, Mutual Assistance and Nonaggres- 
sion (1928). So far as such documents are signed at 
Geneva by delegates to the Assembly, the delegates act 
by virtue of credentials issued by their Governments for 
that specific purpose. 

i Rules of Procedure of the Assembly (C. 356 (1). M. 158 (1). 1923. V), Rule 4. 
* Records of the First Assembly, Plenary Meetings, p. 320. 

[22] 



ORGANS OF THE LEAGUE 23 

Procedure. A session of the Assembly is opened by the 
current president of the Council, after whose address a 
president is elected. Six vice-presidents are elected; the 
chairmen of the six main committees also ranking as vice- 
presidents. 

The work is distributed among six committees consisting 
of one representative of each Member state. Since the 
Third Assembly these have been : 1 

No. 1. Legal and Constitutional Questions; 

No. 2. Technical Organizations of the League; 

No. 3. Reduction of Armaments; 

No. 4. Budget and Financial Questions; 

No. 5. Social and General Questions; 

No. 6. Political Questions. 

Each Assembly appoints three other committees. The 
Credentials Committee passes upon the membership of 
the Assembly. The Agenda Committee decides on the 
disposition of proposals made in the course of the session. 
As this duty is a delicate one, great care is taken to have 
on the committee representatives of states which will 
fully reflect the general opinion of the Assembly. The 
General Committee consisting of the president, vice-presi- 
dents and the chairman of the Agenda Committee, man- 
ages the Assembly, determining the time and business of 
plenary meetings, etc. 

The debate on the Report on the Work of the Council 
lasts from six to ten plenary sessions with from 20 to 30 
Member states represented among the speakers. The 
debate is not only a review of work but a forum in which 
world events are discussed, affording an opportunity to 
appraise recent action and to develop new activities. 

1 The Assembly has also had committees dealing with: 
General organization (First Assembly) ; 
Secretariat (First Assembly) ; 

Permanent Court of International Justice (First Assembly) ; 
Admission of new members (First Assembly) ; 
Economic weapon or blockade (First and Second Assemblies) ; 
Mandates (First Assembly) . 
These questions are now handled by the general committees above. 

123] 



24 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

The six main committees examine all matters of the 
agenda, frequently assuming the character of international 
conferences by the production of declarations of policy or 
agreements for formal acceptance by the Member states. 

The results of the committee deliberations are brought 
before the plenary meetings in reports, the conclusions of 
which are adopted as resolutions by unanimous vote. The 
Assembly as the organ in which all Member states are 
actively represented is well adapted to map out the pro- 
gram of the coming year and to give indications to the 
Council and Secretariat on what matters the Members de- 
sire results to be sought. 

The Council 

Organization. The Council consists of one representa- 
tive each of 

1. Permanent Members: The British Empire, France, 
Germany (since 1926), Italy, Japan (and the United 
States, if it elects to sit), all " deemed to be directly af- 
fected by all matters within the sphere of action of the 
League." 1 

2. Nonpermanent Members: Nine since 1926, six from 
1923 to 1926, 2 originally four from 1920 to 1922, being 
states selected by the Assembly as representative of coun- 
tries of limited interests. 

3. Temporary Members: "Any Member of the League 
not represented on the Council shall be invited to send a 
representative to sit as a Member at any meeting of the 
Council during the consideration of matters specially 
affecting the interests of that Member of the League" 
{Covenant, Art. 4, par. 5). 

The Council acts on behalf of the Members of the League 
as a whole, not solely on behalf of those whose representa- 
tives compose it. 

i Art. 3 of draft Covenant, Annex 1 to Minutes of the first session of the Commis- 
sion on the League of Nations, David Hunter Miller, The Drafting of the Covenant, 
II, p. 232. 

2 Official Journal, III, p. 1197, 1198, 1415. 

[24] 



ORGANS OF THE LEAGUE 25 

"It is impossible to consider ... the Council as an upper 
chamber" or "as invested with the executive" power. 1 

"Under the Covenant representatives sitting on the 
Council. . . render their decisions as the representatives 
of their respective states and in rendering such decisions 
they have no standing except as such representatives." 2 
Functions. "The Council may deal . . . with any 
matter within the sphere of action of the League or af- 
fecting the peace of the world" {Covenant, Art. 4, par. 4). 
The Council has certain powers and duties peculiar to it 
under the Covenant. Among these arc- 
Naming, with the approval of the majority of the As- 
sembly, of "additional Members of the League whose 
representatives shall always be members of the Council," a 
right which was exercised in 1926 with respect to Germany. 
The increase, with the approval of the majority of the 
Assembly, "of the number of Members of the League to be 
selected by the Assembly for representation on the Council." 
This right was exercised in 1922 when the nonpermanent 
Members of the Council were increased from four to six 
and in 1926 from six to nine. 

Approval of appointments made by the Secretary-Gen- 
eral. 

It shall formulate plans for the reduction of armament and 
must give its consent to armament exceeding those limita- 
tions. 

It shall advise as to the evil effects attendant upon the 
manufacture of arms by private enterprise. 

It shall advise in case of aggression. 
_ It may act as a council of mediation or of conciliation 
(inquiry). 

It must make recommendations to the Governments as 
to contributions to armed forces to be used to protect the 
covenants of the League. 

Its consent is required for the cooperation of the Secre- 
tariat with international bureaus and commissions. 

1 Records of the First Assembly, Plenary Meetings, p. 318. 

2 Resolutions adopted by the Fjrjst Assembly, 1920, p. 10. 



26 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

It appoints committees and commissioners, with the 
exception of the Permanent Military, Naval and Air Com- 
mission and the Technical and Advisory Committee on 
Communications in Transit. The former is made up of 
Government representatives and the composition of the 
latter is determined by the General Conference on Com- 
munications and Transit. 

It supervises the "sacred trust of civilization" embodied 
in the system of mandated territories. 

It prepares a draft budget for submission to the Assembly. 
It receives reports from committees and commissioners 
and gives their conclusions effect by adopting them as 
resolutions. 

Among the wide variety of duties "affecting the peace of 
the world" falling to the Council under treaties are: 

Joint election (with the Assembly) of judges of the Per- 
manent Court of International Justice. 

The protection of racial, religious and linguistic minor- 
ities. 

The Saar Basin administration. 

Control of armament in Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, 
Hungary. 

The Straits Commission annual reports. ^ 
Disputes referred to it under many treaties. 
Procedure. The Council held 53 sessions from 1920 to 
1928 and handled 2,400 items of business. The agenda is 
prepared by the Secretariat from recommendations of 
Member states. 

The president of the Council is the representative of a 
Member whose turn has arrived in rotation according to 
the alphabetical order of the states represented. He acts 
until the succeeding session. 

Meetings are invariably public, the only regular excep- 
tion being for the discussion of appointments. Full pro- 
ceedings are published. 

Decisions are unanimous, usually without a record vote. 
All matters of procedure, which include decisions taken in 
virtue of the Rules of. Procedure, are determined by ma- 

[26] 



ORGANS OF THE LEAGUE 



27 



jority vote of the Members of the League represented and 
voting at the meeting. 1 

Representatives of Members of the League attend ses- 
sions with full powers authorizing them to bind their 
Governments in case a decision takes the form of an in- 
ternational instrument. 

The Council on August 31, 1923, decided that it should 
hold regular meetings on the Monday immediately pre- 
ceding December 10, March 10 and June 10 and that the 
fourth session should begin three days before the meeting 
of the Assembly. Extra sessions may be held if necessary. 
Since 1926 the August-September meeting has split into 
two sessions, the Council reorganizing after the election 
of the nonpermanent Members by the Assembly. In 
March, 1927, the British representative raised the ques- 
tion of reducing the annual number of sessions from four 
to three to facilitate the attendance of foreign ministers 
as representatives. Reports and discussions are under 
consideration by Member states and a decision is expected 
after the 1929 Assembly. 2 

Rapporteurs. The rules of procedure provide that ques- 
tions should be examined and reported upon by the rep- 
resentatives of Members neutral to the subject matter. 
On February 2, 1923, the experience of the previous three 
years was consolidated into a list of subjects and rap- 
porteurs. With a change in the composition of the Council 
in 1926, annual revision, in view of the changes in states rep- 
resented on the Council, has since been required. On Sep- 
tember 19, 1928, the following list of rapporteurs for 1928-29 
was approved at the 52nd session of the Council: 



1. Financial questions .... 


Cuba 


2. Economic questions 


Germany 


3. Transit Committee .... 


Poland 


4. Health 


Spain 


5. International law .... 


Italy 


6. Finances of the League of Nations 


Persia 


7. International bureaus 


Venezuela 



1 Rules of Procedure of the Council, May 17, 1920, Official Journal I, p. 272. 

2 Official Journal, VIII, p. 819, 743; IX, p. 141, 173. 

[27] 



28 



WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 



8. Mandates 

9. Minorities 

10. Armaments 

11. Saar 

12. Danzig . 

13. Intellectual Cooperation . 

14. Opium .... 

15. Traffic in Women and Children 

16. Humanitarian questions . 

17. Child Welfare . 



Finland 

Japan 

Rumania 

Italy 

Chile 

France 

Canada 

Great Britain 

Venezuela 

Canada 



Nonpermanent Members. The term of office of the 
Council with respect to nonpermanent Members was 
fixed by Assembly resolution of December 11, 1920, as 
running from January 1. Rules adopted by the Assembly 
on September 15, 1926, provide that nonpermanent Mem- 
bers shall take office immediately on election in Septem- 
ber. The year of the Council, from 1920 to 1926 there- 
fore, was on the calendar; periods since then have been: 
September 16, 1926-September 15, 1927; September 15, 
1927-September 10, 1928; September 10, 1928-Sep- 
tember, 1929. 

The states which have served are as follows, the asterisk 
indicating the nine current members: 



Belgium (1920-27) 
Brazil (1920-26) 
♦Canada (1927-30) 
♦Chile (1926-29) 
China (1921-23, 1926-28) 
Colombia (1926-28) 
*Cuba (1927-30) 
Czechoslovakia (1924-27) 
♦Finland (1927-30) 
Greece (1920) 



Netherlands (1926-28) 
♦Persia (1928-31) 
♦Poland (1926-29) l 
♦Rumania (1926-29) 
Salvador (1926-27) 
♦Spain (1920-26, 1928-31) * 
Sweden (1923-26) 
Uruguay (1923-26) 
♦Venezuela (1928-31) 



The first four nonpermanent Members of the Council 
were designated in the Covenant. They were intended to 
be one less than the permanent Members, but the Coun- 
cil's need for disinterested rapporteurs, the amount of 

1 Also reeligible for further term of three years. 

[28 1 



ORGANS OF THE LEAGUE 29 

work, and the desire of Member states to participate 
caused an increase to six in 1922. At the Council meet- 
ing, in March, 1926, held simultaneously with the Special 
Assembly, and in that Assembly, the claims of Brazil and 
Spain to permanent Council seats along with Germany — 
obviously a state with "general interests" — led to a re- 
examination of the whole problem of selecting nonper- 
manent Members of the Council adequately representative 
of the entire League membership. 

In 1920 doubt had been expressed in the First Assembly 
as to its competence under the Covenant to decide that 
problem in a fundamental manner. The doubt was cor- 
rected by an amendment to Art. 4, par. 2, of the Covenant. 
Pending its sufficient ratification the problem lay in abey- 
ance. Spain, wishing to retain a nonpermanent seat, had 
not signed the protocol of amendment, so that the amend- 
ment could not become effective. The sharp attention 
drawn to this condition by the failure of the Special As- 
sembly to accomplish the admission of Germany, con- 
centrated attention upon establishing membership in the 
Council on a firm basis. A Committee on the Composi- 
tion of the Council of 15 representatives of Member states 
was appointed by the Council on March 18, 1926. 1 The 
pressure of general opinion led Spain to ratify the amend- 
ment, which entered into force on July 29, 1926. 2 The 
committee in its later studies and the Seventh Assembly 
were therefore able to consider the problem under the 
following stipulations of the Covenant: 

Art. 4. 2. With the approval of the majority of the Assembly, the 
Council may name additional Members of the League whose Repre- 
sentatives shall always be members of the Council; the Council with 
like approval may increase the number of Members of the League 
to be selected by the Assembly for representation on the Council. 

2 bis. The Assembly shall fix by a two-thirds majority the rules 
dealing with the election of the nonpermanent members of the Coun- 
cil, and particularly such regulations as relate to their term of office 
and the conditions of ineligibility. 

1 OfficialJournal, VII, p. 533. 
Ubid., p. 870. 

[29] 



30 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

The problem which the Assembly was now free to solve 
was very complicated. The Assemblies of 1922-25 had 
reiterated that it was desirable for the Assembly to choose 
nonpermanent Members of the Council "with due con- 
sideration for the main geographical divisions of the world, 
the great ethnical groups, the different religious traditions, 
the various types of civilization and the chief sources of 
wealth." The Sixth Assembly had declared for "applica- 
tion of the principal of rotation." Brazil, China, Poland, 
Spain and perhaps other states had developed at the 
Special Assembly ambitions to be permanent Members. 
They raised the thorny question of how many states can in 
fact legitimately claim that all matters coming before the 
Council directly or specially affect their interests. In 
addition, the number of Council Members had to be 
limited to preserve its essential character as a body taking 
decisions. A permanent place was reserved for the United 
States under the Covenant and another was earmarked 
for the Soviet Union. 

The Committee on the Composition of the Council sought 
the answer to the problem. It ended its second session 
September 3, 1926, and the next day the Council approved 
its report and passed a resolution to carry out its provisions 
so far as that body was concerned, by appointing Germany 
a permanent Member and increasing to nine the non- 
permanent members. The Assembly submitted the report 
to some revision in its First Committee and on September 
15 adopted its conclusions as a set of rules. The essentials 
of these read: 1 

Article I. The Assembly shall each year, in the course of its ordi- 
nary session, elect three nonpermanent members of the Council. They 
shall be elected for a term commencing immediately on their election 
and ending on the day of the elections held three years later by the 
Assembly. ... 

Art. II. A retiring member may not be reelected during the period 
between the expiration of its term of office and the third election in 
ordinary session held thereafter unless the Assembly, either on the 

i Resolutions and Recommendations of the Assembly . . . 1926 (Official Journal, 
Spec. Sup. No. 43) p. 9-10. 

[30 1 



ORGANS OF THE LEAGUE 31 

expiration of the member's term of office or in the course of the said 
period of three years, shall, by a majority of two-thirds of the votes 
cast, previously have decided that such member is reeligible. J . . . 

The Assembly may not decide upon the reeligibility of a member 
except upon a request in writing made by the member itself. . . . 

The number of members reelected in consequence of having been 
previously declared reeligible shall be restricted so as to prevent the 
Council from containing at the same time more than three members 
thus elected. . . . 

Art. III. Notwithstanding the above provisions, the Assembly 
may at any time by a two-thirds majority decide to proceed, in appli- 
cation of Art. 4 of the Covenant, to a new election of all the non- 
permanent members of the Council. In this case the Assembly shall 
determine the rules applicable to the new election. 

Temporary Members. By Art. 4, par. 5, of the Cove- 
nant any Member of the League not represented on the 
Council is entitled to representation as a Member during 
consideration of matters specially affecting its interests. 
The same principle is applied to non-Members of the 
League. Organizations both of League and non-League 
origin have official representatives at sessions dealing with 
matters concerning them and participate in the proceedings. 
By virtue of these practices the participation of non- 
Council Members may equal in number that of Council 
Members. In 15 sessions in 1925-27 a total of 120 states 
and 58 committees participated. A state's representative 
so attending sits and votes as a Member. The extra- 
Council attendance at the 37th session in December, 1925, 
for instance was: 

Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Danzig, Denmark, Greece, 
Hungary, Netherlands, Persia, Poland, Rumania, Serb- 
Croat-Slovene State and Turkey. The Commission of 
Inquiry on Bulgaro-Greek Affairs, the Assistant High Com- 
missioner for Hungary, the Commissioner-General for 
Austria, the Committee of Control of the Austrian Loan, 
the Permanent Mandates Commission, the High Com- 
missioner for Danzig, the Commissioner on the Iraqi- 

i Poland was voted reeligible in 1926 and Spain, by special extension of the right to 
apply, in 1928, Belgium was denied reeligibility in 1927 and China in 1928. 

[31 1 



32 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

Turkish Frontier and the Mixed Commission on the Greco- 
Turkish Exchange of Populations were also represented or 
present. 

The Secretariat 

Functions. "The permanent Secretariat shall be estab- 
lished at the Seat of the League. The Secretariat shall 
comprise a Secretary-General and such secretaries and 
staff as may be required" {Covenant, Art. 6). 

"All positions under or in connection with the League, 
including the Secretariat, shall be open equally to men and 
women. 

"Representatives of the Members of the League and 
officials of the League when engaged on the business of the 
League shall enjoy diplomatic privileges and immunities. 

"The buildings and other property occupied by the 
League or its officials or by representatives attending its 
meetings shall be inviolable" {Covenant, Art. 7). 

"The members of the Secretariat act, during their period 
of office, in an international capacity, and are not in any 
way representatives of their own country." l 

By Art. 18 of the Covenant the Secretariat shall publish 
as soon as possible every treaty or international engage- 
ment registered with it. 

The Secretary-General appoints the personnel with the 
approval of the Council. He acts as secretary-general at 
all meetings of the Assembly and Council. 

The Secretary-General shall summon a meeting of the 
Council under Art. 11, par. 1, of the Covenant. 

Organization. The Secretariat comprises the Secretary- 
General, Sir Eric Drummond, and about 475 men and 
women of some 40 nationalities. Appointments are made 
by the Secretary-General, with the approval of the Council. 
However, the Secretary-General has established Staff Regu- 
lations which in large measure control nominations for 
appointment. 

i Memorandum of Secretary-General to Fifth Session of the Council, May 19, 
1920, Prods-verbal of the 5th Session, p. 219. 

[32] 



ORGANS OF THE LEAGUE 33 

The Secretariat includes a Deputy Secretary-General 
(French) and three Under Secretaries-General (German, 
Italian and Japanese), who have charge respectively of 
Internal Administration and, as directors, of the Section of 
International Bureaus and Intellectual Cooperation, and of 
the Political Section. Included in the General Organization 
are the Information Section and its Liaison Offices in Paris, 
Rome, Budapest, The Hague, Tokyo and Turkey, the Legal 
Section (which acts as counsel to all League organs and deals 
with all matters concerning the registration of treaties), and 
the Treasurer's Office. 

The Special Organizations of the League are served by 
the following Sections of the Secretariat: Administrative 
Commissions and Minorities Questions, Economic and 
Financial, Mandates, Transit, Health, Social Questions and 
Opium Traffic, Disarmament, Intellectual Cooperation. 

The Internal Administrative Services comprise the Per- 
sonnel Office, Precis-Writing Department, Printing and 
Publications Department, Drafting Committee, Interpret- 
ers and Translators, Library, Registry and Indexing of 
Publications Service, Internal Control Office, Internal 
Services, Stationery, Supplies and General Contracts, 
Stenographers' Branch, Distribution of Documents, Mis- 
cellaneous Services and House Staff. 

The complete Staff List was published annually in No. 1 
of the Official Journal until it was decided in 1928 to print 
it in No. 1 1 of each year. 

The Eighth Assembly on September 26, 1927, adopted a 
statute establishing, until the Assembly of 1931, an ad- 
ministrative tribunal in order to provide a forum for 
disputes arising from staff contracts, and particularly to 
remove that administrative detail from the shoulders of the 
chiefs of League organizations. The tribunal consists of 
three judges and three deputy- judges, all of different nation- 
alities, and their judgments, which are final and without 
appeal, are to be taken by a majority vote, with the reasons 
therefor stated. The tribunal is competent for any dis- 
putes concerning compensation under the Staff Regu- 

[33] 



34 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

lations. The tribunal was organized as of January 1, 

1928. 1 . 

Character. Some permanent appointments to the orig- 
inal Secretariat were for seven years under contract and 
expired with the year 1926 or early in 1927. The Council 
on May 19, 1920, approved the provisional appointments 
of the Secretary-General made under the authority of the 
Organization committee for a period of five years. 2 Re- 
appointments may be made. 

A Committee of Experts was appointed to study the 
many problems connected with the Secretariat in accord- 
ance with an Assembly resolution of December 17, 1920. 
A report based on its studies was adopted by the Assembly 
on October 1, 1921, 3 in which definite rules of tenure were 
laid down. On this basis the higher officials through the 
directors of sections hold office for a maximum period of 
seven years, reappointments being in the nature of excep- 
tions to the rule. . 

Members of sections and officers of equivalent grade 
receive permanent appointments divided into Classes A 
and B, the requirements being "high educational qualifica- 
tions and . . . very considerable capacity and qualities of 
initiative and resource." Permanent service is for a period 
of 21 years, with an age limit of 55. The 21 years consists 
of three periods of seven years each. The subordinate start 
(Class C), shorthand typists, etc., have a tenure of 28 years, 
divided into four periods. Staff of lower grade has no fixed 
tenure. Promotion occurs throughout the whole Secretariat. 
At the Ninth Assembly there was expressed the fear that 
the Secretariat was undergoing a change for the worse and 
that the principles laid down in the Balfour memorandum 
of May 19 1920, 4 were not being fully realized. Certain 
states were not yet "represented" in the Secretariat; 
nationals of a certain group filled too large a number of 
posts; there was a growing tendency for the higher officials 

i Official Journal, IX, p. 172. 

2 Prods-verbal of the Fifth Session, p. 37, 237. 

i Records of the Second Assembly, Plenary Meetings, p. 594, 600. 

* Official Journal, I, p. 136. 

[341 



ORGANS OF THE LEAGUE 35 

to be members of the diplomatic service of their respective 
countries, and certain states laid a permanent claim to high 
posts. The matter was debated in the Fourth Committee. 
^ The Assembly adopted a resolution indorsing the prin- 
ciples concerning the staff of the Secretariat contained in 
the report adopted by the Council on May 19, 1920. 
" In the words of this report, the Secretary General, in mak- 
ing appointments to posts on the Secretariat, 'had pri- 
marily to secure the best available men and women for the 
particular^ duties which had to be performed. But in 
doing so, it was necessary to have regard to the great im- 
portance of selecting officials from various nations. Evi- 
dently no one nation or group of nations ought to have a 
monopoly in providing the material for this international 
institution.' Lord Balfour emphasized the word 'inter- 
national' because the members of the Secretariat, once 
appointed are no longer the servants of the country of which 
they are citizens, but become for the time being servants 
only of the League of Nations. Their duties are not 
national, but international." l 

3. Finances of the League 

Allocation. "The expenses of the League shall be borne 
by the Members of the League in the proportion decided by 
the Assembly" {Covenant, Art. 6, par. 5). 

The above provision is an amendment to the Covenant 
which went into force on August 13, 1924. The original 
provision apportioned the expenses on the basis of a scheme 
adopted for the Universal Postal Union, under which the first 
three budgets were allocated, with subsequent modifications. 

The First Assembly recommended to the Council "the 
immediate appointment of a special committee ... to 
investigate the question of the allocation of the expendi- 
ture of the League, with a view to an equitable scheme of 
allocation being devised." 2 The committee on allocation 
of expenses was first appointed on December 14, 1920. It 

1 Resolutions and Recommendations adopted by the Assembly . . 1928 p 62 
„ 2 ^ esolu ^ ons / do /(^ by the Assembly, 1920, p. 27; see also Records of the First As- 
sembly. Records of Committees, II, p. 125. 

[35J 



36 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

was not until 1925 that the committee completed its work 
and a scheme was voted by the Sixth Assembly for the 
years 1926, 1927 and 1928. This was reexamined in 1928 
and its revision postponed to 1930 when it is hoped fully 
stabilized conditions will prevail. The Ninth Assembly 
continued the 1926-28 scheme of allocation for the years 
1929 1930, 1931, and 1932. The report of the Fourth 
Committee to the Sixth Assembly presented a plan based 
on postwar data which overcame many difficulties in 
weighing fiscal ability of Members. 1 



Scale of Allocation 


of the Expenses of the League for 1929-32 


Country Units Country Units 


Abyssinia 
Albania 




2 Italy 
1 Japan 




ou 

60 
3 
1 
4 
1 
23 
10 
1 
9 
1 
1 
5 
9 
32 
6 
. 22 
1 
. 20 
9 
. 40 
15 
18 
. 17 
7 


Argentine 

Australia . 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bolivia 

Bulgaria 






29 Latvia 
27 Liberia 
8 Lithuania 
18 Luxemburg 

4 Netherlands 

5 New Zealand 




Canada 






35 Nicaragua 




Chile 






14 Norway . 




China 






46 Panama . 




Colombia 




6 Paraguay 




[Costa Rica] 
Cuba 
Czechoslovakia . 




[1] Persia 

9 Peru 

29 Poland 




Denmark . 
Dominican Republic 
Estonia 
Finland 




12 Portugal . 

1 Rumania . 

3 Salvador . 
10 Serb-Croat-Slovene Si 


:ate 


France 




79 Siam 




Germany . 
Great Britain . 
Greece 
Guatemala 




79 Spain 

105 South Africa (Union « 
7 Sweden 
1 Switzerland 


3f) 


Haiti 




1 Uruguay . 




Honduras 




1 Venezuela 


Hungary . 
India 




! 56 9S6 


Irish Free State 




10 




i Records o, 


f the Si 


xth Assembly, Plenary Meetings, p. 420 


, 





[36 



ORGANS OF THE LEAGUE 



37 



Budgets. The budget meets the expenses of the Assem- 
bly, the Council and the Secretariat; the International 
Labor Office, and the Permanent Court of International 
Justice since 1922. The total budgets have been: 

Period Amount Unit 

1. May 5, 1919-June30, 1920 £291,078 15s. lOd £648 



2. April 1-Dec. 31, 1920 

3. Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1921 

4. Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1922 

5. Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1923 

6. Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1924 

7. Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1925 

8. Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1926 

9. Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1927 

10. Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1928 

11. Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1929 



= $1,416,535 
10,000,000 gold francs 20,920 gold 

= $1,930,000 francs (Swiss) 

21,250,000 gold francs 

= $4,101,250 
20,873,945 gold francs 

= $4,028,671 
25,673,508 gold francs 

= $4,954,987 
23,233,635.7 gold francs $4,810 . 09 

= $4,483,007.69 
22,658, 138 gold francs 4,675 . 90 

= $4,371,963.49 
22,930,633 gold francs 4,722.03 

= $4,424,542.31 
24,512,341 gold francs 4,659.84 

= $4,729,738.17 
25,333,817 gold francs 4,787.39 

= $4,888,244.69 
27,026,280 gold francs 5,288 . 86 

= $5,214,811.09 



The budget for 1929 is divided as follows 

I. Secretariat and Special Organizations . 

II. International Labor Organization 

III. Permanent Court of International Justice 

IV. Buildings at Geneva ..... 

Total 



Gold franca 

14,713,085 
8,612,640 
2,255,555 
1,445,000 

27,026,280 



The total budgetary contributions up to December 31, 
1925, exclusive of the Working Capital Fund, amounted 
to 116,232,938.29 gold francs. The allocation of actual 
expenditure, including payment for the Secretariat office 
and the International Labor Office building, up to the same 
date based on annual scales of apportionment was 

[37 1 



38 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

97,872,077.76 francs. The amounts overpaid by the 
Member states reached a total of 22,837,481.83 francs, 
while amounts underpaid by Bolivia, China, Honduras, 
Liberia, Nicaragua, Peru and Salvador reached a total 
of 4,476,621.30 francs. 1 As a consequence of these cir- 
cumstances the Supervisory Commission decided upon a 
readjustment in the 1927 budget so as to refund to Mem- 
ber states all surpluses which had accumulated up to De- 
cember 31, 1925. Rules to govern refunds were laid down x 
and 1,400,000 francs ($270,134.68) was assigned for deduc- 
tion from the budget annually for 1927 and succeeding 
years until the readjustment is completed. 

Supervisory Commission 

The First Assembly examined the financial arrangements 
previously made by the Secretariat with great care, and 
on December 17, 1920, voted that the Council should 
appoint "a small committee of experts to consider all 
factors connected with the organization, method of work, 
efficiency, number, salaries and allowances of the staff, 
and with the general expenditure of the whole organization, 2 
as well as with all other points necessary to enable the 
Assembly to form a fair judgment in respect thereto, both 
as regards the Secretariat and the International Labor 
Office." A committee of five began a preliminary investi- 
gation on April 18, 1921, and sat from April 26 to May 7, 
when it presented a report to the Council. This report 
was transmitted to the Second Assembly 3 which on 
October 5, 192 1, 4 passed a recommendation that the com- 
mittee be reappointed by the Council to continue its work. 
The Council on October 12, 1921, appointed the Commis- 
sion of Control. The name was subsequently retranslated 
as the Supervisory Commission. The Ninth Assembly 

i Supervisory Commission. Report . . . on Us 18th and 19th Sessions (1926. X. 8), 
p. 4-5. 

2 The "Regulations for the Financial Administration of the League of Nations" 
are printed in Official Journal, V, p. 78. 

3 Records of the Second Assembly. Meetings of the Committees, II, p. 174. 
« Ibid., Plenary Meetings, p. 595. 

[38] 



ORGANS OF THE LEAGUE 39 

decided that the commission should thereafter be elected 
by the Assembly, thus emphasizing its control over the 
finances. 

United States Payments. The American legation in 
Bern was authorized on January 6, 1928, to pay to the 
Secretariat of the League a total of $16,748.60 (the check 
was for 83,743 Swiss francs) as the American share of the 
League Secretariat expenses in connection with certain 
conferences in which the United States participated. Of 
the total amount, $5,475 was for the four sessions of the 
Preparatory Commission for the Disarmament Conference. 
The remainder met expenses for the Conference on Export 
and Import Prohibitions and Restrictions, and the Con- 
ference on Communications and Transit. The contri- 
bution was made at the suggestion of the United States 
Government on the basis of figures prepared by the Secre- 
tariat. The Department of State stated that "the Ameri- 
can contribution is the same as the British, which is the 
largest sum hitherto paid by any country." From this 
it is to be concluded that the United States bases its pay- 
ments upon the 105 units of the budget assigned to Great 
Britain. In addition to this payment, the United States 
Government buys documents from the League to the 
amount of $400 annually. 

Previous payments of a similar character were made in 
the amount of $2,900 in 1925 as a result of participation in 
the Second Opium Conference and of $2,700 in connection 
with participation in the Conference on Traffic in Arms, 
also held in 1925. 

Assembly Hall 

The Fifth Assembly requested the Council to appoint 
architects to draw up the conditions of a competition for 
plans for a new conference hall. The Secretariat is housed 
in the former Hotel National, situated in grounds of its 
own on the west side of Lac Leman. Additional property 
adjacent was added by gift from the Canton and City of 
Geneva, making a total site of 13,104 square meters 

[39] 



40 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

(141,051 square feet). The only large building available 
for the Assembly is the Hall of the Reformation across the 
lake, a mile or more away. The Assembly early considered 
it desirable to have the hall for its meetings more accessible 
to the Secretariat, where the Council holds its sessions and 
where all files and other records are kept. 

In 1923 a resolution in favor of erecting a hall on the 
land given by the Canton and City of Geneva, adjacent 
to the Secretariat, was passed. The available site offered 
perhaps 5,000 square meters (50,382 square feet) for the 
purpose. The architects considered this site too small and 
another site was proposed farther up the west side of the 
lake between the Pare Mon Repos and the International 
Labor Office building. This consisted of four properties, 
one of which was not obtainable. Consequently, the Ninth 
Assembly concluded arrangements with the Genevan au- 
thorities to place the new buildings in Ariana Park, which 
abuts on the International Labor Office property on the 
lake front. The area acquired by the exchange is about 
250,000 square meters. 

In September, 1927, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., tendered, 
and the Council and Assembly accepted, $2,000,000 for the 
construction and endowment of a League Library which 
would also provide full and adequate facilities for private 
research work. 1 A special committee is working on con- 
ditions to be met and is securing plans. 

An international jury of architects for the selection of 
plans by competition for the new Assembly Hall was ap- 
pointed by the Council in September, 1924. The compe- 
tition closed on January 25, 1927. None of the prize- 
winning plans was deemed entirely suitable and a com- 
mittee was appointed to adapt them. The change of site 
to Ariana Park necessitates still further adjustments in the 
plans. The Assembly Hall and new Secretariat will cost 
19,500,000 francs, or about $3,900,000. 

i Official Journal, VIII, p. 1132. 



40 



ORGANS OF THE LEAGUE 41 



4. Registration of Treaties 

"Every treaty or international engagement entered into 
hereafter by any Member of the League shall be forthwith 
registered with the Secretariat and shall as soon as possible 
be published by it. No such treaty or international en- 
gagement shall be binding until so registered" (Covenant, 
Art. 18). 

"Publicity has for a long time been considered as a source 
of moral strength in the administration of national law. 
It should equally strengthen the laws and engagements 
which exist between nations. It will promote public con- 
trol. It will awaken public interest. It will remove causes 
for distrust and conflict. Publicity alone will enable the 
League of Nations to extend a moral sanction to the con- 
tractual obligations of its Members. It will, moreover, 
contribute to the formation of a clear and indisputable 
system of international law." (Memorandum approved by 
the Council, May 19, 1920.) x 

Registration. Certified, complete texts are communi- 
cated to the Secretariat by one or all parties to the engage- 
ment. Certificates of registration are delivered to the 
party registering the document. 

A register, entitled "Registration of Treaties," an ele- 
phant folio series of volumes marked off in columns, is 
kept. In these volumes are inscribed the names of the 
parties to the engagement, its short title, date of signing, 
date of ratification, date of registration and registration 
number, determined chronologically by the order of presen- 
tation. In a supplementary register each treaty or engage- 
ment is assigned a separate page, on which are noted 
additional signatures, ratifications, adhesions, denuncia- 
tions, etc., as well as records of negotiations, national 
legislation, and other details of the document's history. 

Treaty Series. The obligation of publishing interna- 
tional engagements is met by the issuance of the Treaty 

1 Treaty Series, I, p. 9. 

[41] 



42 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

Series: Publication of Treaties and International Engage- 
ments Registered with the Secretariat of the League. 

The first treaty was filed for registration by Denmark, 
Norway and Sweden on July 5, 1920, and was registered 
tfhe same day. The first issue of the Treaty Series was 
published in September, 1920, and contained nine treaties. 
Seventy-two volumes of over 400 pages each have been 
issued up to 1929. 

Texts are published in the languages of negotiation, 
and in French and English, if either of these official League 
languages were not used for the original texts. 

The total registration, which does not include treaties 
filed by the United States for publication, on November 
1, 1928, was 1859, as follows: 

1920 July-December 70 

1921 January-December 128 

1922 January-December 165 

1923 January-December ISO 

1924 January-December 251 

1925 January-December 249 

1926 January-December 350 

1927 January-December . . . . . . • 221 

1928 January-October 211 

Total 1.859 



42 



III. PROMOTION OF INTERNATIONAL 
COOPERATION 

The Assembly and Council are assisted in specific 
phases of League business by what are known as Technical 
Organizations. The fully developed technical organization 
devotes itself to a single field of international relations and 
consists of three parts : 1 , A section of the Secretariat serv- 
ing as an exploring, recording and secretarial body; 2, An 
advisory or technical committee composed of experts serv- 
ing to give definite form to the material placed before the 
committee by Member states or the Secretariat; 3, Con- 
ferences of representatives of Member and other states 
convened on the advice of the committee and on invitation 
from the Council, resulting in international conventions sub- 
mitted by signatory states to their appropriate internal 
organs for ratification. 

The technical organizations are "established for the 
purpose of facilitating the task of the Assembly and the 
Council ... on the one hand and on the other to assist 
Members of the League by establishing direct contact 
between their technical representatives in the various 
spheres, to fulfil their international duties. With this 
double object, they must keep enough independence and 
flexibility to make them effectively useful to the Members 
of the League, and yet they must remain under the con- 
trol of the responsible organizations which conduct the 
general business of the League." 

1. Economic and Financial Organization 

On the invitation of the Secretary-General a conference 
on International Cooperation in Statistics was held in 
London, August 14—15, 1919, before the League was 
formally in being. The Council at Rome in May, 1920, 
appointed a commission to advise it upon what steps should 

[43] 



44 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

be taken. This commission met at Paris on October 10, 
1920, and surveyed the field, which was then more or less 
dominated by the Supreme Economic Council, a develop- 
ment from the Supreme War Council which had been 
active during the World War. Eventually, in July, 1921, 
the League continued the publication of the Monthly 
Bulletin of Statistics, which otherwise would have ceased 
with the dissolution of the Supreme Economic Council in 
the previous May. 

The first definite action of the League in this field was 
the convening of the Brussels International Financial Con- 
ference which sat from September 24 to October 8, 1920, 
and was attended by representatives of 39 states, includ- 
ing the United States. The conference produced a series 
of resolutions which were generally recognized as a funda- 
mental statement of the financial problems involved in 
reconstruction. 

The resolutions of the conference were forwarded to 
Member states by the Council, which, in accordance with 
them, on October 25, 1920, decided upon the creation of a 
financial and economic organization consisting of two 
sections of 10 members each to proceed separately with 
their technical work and to meet as a single committee 
whenever proposals of a general nature are to be laid 
before the Council, or at the request of either. 1 The First 
Assembly confirmed this action. The Provisional Economic 
and Financial Committee was appointed by the Council on 
November 14, 1920. It was continued provisionally 
through the calendar years 1922 and 1923 by the Council. 2 
On September 10, 1923, the Council prolonged its term of 
office until further orders and the title became Economic 
and Financial Commission. 3 

i Council, Minutes of the 10th Session, p. 29 and 209. 

2 Council, Minutes of the 14th Session, p. 101; Official Journal, III, p. 1398. 

» Official Journal, IV, p. 1303. 



[44] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 45 



The Economic Organization 
The Economic and Financial Commission from 1920 to 
1927 was divided into the Financial Committee and 
Economic Committee, each consisting of 10 members. 
It was the Economic Committee alone which was primarily 
concerned in preparation for the International Economic 
Conference. That conference expressed the opinion that 
its success would depend upon the execution of the prin- 
ciples laid down by it, and, with respect to appropriate 
organization, drew "the Council's attention to the well- 
balanced composition of the Preparatory Committee, which 
has yielded excellent results." 

The Eighth Assembly dealt with the reorganization 
Its resolution stated that much important and extensive 
work would result from the recommendations of the 
Economic Conference in addition to the economic tasks 
hitherto taken up by the League. It called attention to 
the essential desirability of the different interests and 
organizations which had collaborated in the preparation 
of the conference continuing to give their support and 
advice. It, therefore, concluded that the Economic 
Committee should continue as "the organ through which 
the Council deals with economic affairs" and that it should 
be constituted "so as to be best suited for its principal work 
which, in the near future at least, will lie within the sphere 
of the economic relations between states and their eco- 
nomic policies so far as they have international aspects." 
The resolution 1 envisaged three bodies, in addition to the 
becretanat : 

(a) ^The Economic Committee; 

(b) "Temporary subcommittees of experts for preparatory 
work and, subject to Council approval and in consultation 
with the states in question, economic correspondents in 
countries which have no member on the committee;" and 

W A Consultative Committee the object of which is 

1 Official Journal, VIII, p. 1482. 

[45] 



46 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

to follow the application of the Economic Conference 
recommendations." 

The Economic Committee provided by the Council on 
September 27, 1927, consists of 15 members of different 
nationalities appointed in their personal capacity on the 
ground of their qualifications and holding office for three 
years. Retiring members become "corresponding mem- 
bers" unless succeeded by a member of the same nationality. 

The Consultative Committee was established by the 
Council, December 9, 1927, x with a membership of about 60. 
The committee is modeled in make-up after the Preparatory 
Committee for the International Economic Conference and 
includes persons competent in industry, commerce, agri- 
culture, finance, transport, labor questions, and questions 
relative to consumption. Three members from the Inter- 
national Chamber of Commerce are provided for. 

World Economic Conference 
The Sixth Assembly, on the proposal of the French dele- 
gation, called for an international economic conference 
because it was "convinced that economic peace will largely 
contribute to security among nations" and was persuaded 
of the necessity of investigating difficulties affecting the 
revival of general prosperity. 

The proposal was universally recognized as of funda- 
mental importance and every effort was made to insure 
that no stone was left unturned to bring forth the soundest 
judgment, unaffected by political considerations of any 
kind. The first step was for the Council to appoint a Pre- 
paratory Committee composed of the experts best fitted by 
their qualifications and personal experience to prepare the 
work of the conference, and not of representatives of Govern- 
ments or organizations. It was given full scope 2 and for 

i Official Journal, IX, p. 171-172. The committee includes nationals of the follow- 
ing countries: Australia. Austria, Belgium, Great Britain, Canada, Chile. China, 
Colombia, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany Greece, Hungary, 
India, Italy, Japan. Luxemburg, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Serb- 
Croat-Slovene State, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States. 

2 Official Journal, VI, p. 185, 238, 358. 

[46] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 47 

over a year its 35 members from 21 countries worked on the 
program and collected and published in 60 memoranda an 
enormous amount of material, compiled with the aid of 
official and private organizations throughout the world and 
covering an extremely wide range of subjects. 1 

The International Economic Conference summoned by 
the Council sat at Geneva from May 4 to 23, 1927, and was 
attended by 190 delegates and 157 experts from 50 coun- 
tries. 2 It was also attended by observers from Mexico; by 
representatives of the Chambers of Commerce and other 
international organizations appointed by the Council, and 
by experts invited by the president of the conference. 

The delegates, selected by their Governments on the 
basis of technical and personal qualifications, were not 
spokesmen of any official policy, and their personal re- 
sponsibility alone was engaged. They included industrial- 
ists, merchants, bankers, economists, agriculturists, officials 
with experience of commercial policy, representatives of 
workers' and consumers' organizations and cooperative 
societies and three women specialists in economic matters. 

The main object of the conference as recommended by 
the Assembly was to bring about a general exchange of 
views on existing economic difficulties and the means of 
overcoming them — to evoke collective opinion on the 
conditions^ principles and guaranties which might serve 
as a starting point for the improvements and progress 
necessary to restore greater freedom to international com- 
merce. The conference was only a stage in the continuous 
work of collaboration in the economic sphere which began 
before the project of a general conference was launched, 
and continues after the conference itself. 

i The documentation is on sale by World Peace Foundation (catalog furnished): 
see also World Peace Foundation Pamphlets, Vol. X, No. 4 and Report to the Council 
on the Second Session of the Committee (1926. II. 57), p. 4. 

2 The countries represented were Abyssinia, Albania, Australia, Austria, Belgium 
Brazil, British Empire, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Czecho- 
slovakia, Danzig, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany Greece 
Guatemala, Hungary, India, Irish Free State, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Luxemburg, Neth- 
erlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway. Paraguay, Persia, Poland, Portugal, 
Rumania, Salvador, Serb-Croat-Slovene State, Siam, South Africa, Sweden, Switzer- 
land, Turkey, Union of the Socialist Soviet Republics, United States, Uruguay and 
Venezuela. 

[47] 



48 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

The Final Report of the conference was a full review of 
the economic position in the world in 1927. Generally, it 
was found that production and consumption were greater 
than before the war, but that they were unevenly dis- 
tributed throughout the world. The inequalities af- 
fected international trade injuriously. Industries en- 
joyed unequal prosperity, some suffering undue depression. 
The world had not adjusted itself to such abnormal charges 
as war debts and to the sudden increase in manufacturing 
facilities in countries formerly producing only raw materials. 

The very extensive report based upon the resolutions 
of the conference dealt in general and in detail with (1) 
commerce in its relation to liberty of trading, customs 
tariffs, commercial policy and treaties; (2) industry in its 
relation to the general situation, rationalization, inter- 
national industrial agreements and industrial informa- 
tion; (3) agriculture in several general and various special 
aspects. 

The Final Report is textually available in separate form * 
and should be read as a whole in order to comprehend the 
new orientation which the conference has given to the 
world's economy. Though its conclusions were those of 
experience rather than of governmental authority, their 
clearness, logic and practical value gave them a high 
standing without delay. The Assembly in a resolution on 
September 20, 1927, 

Believes . . . that there is every reason to hope for universal 
approval when the public opinion of all countries has been sufficiently 
instructed; ... 

Trusts that the economic policies of all countries may develop in 
accordance with the principles laid down by the conference and desires 
that the Economic Organization of the League should take these 
recommendations as the basis of its work. 

No state has disapproved of the Final Report and its 
recommendations. On the other hand, 30 Governments 

i The World Economic Conference, Final Report (C E. I. 44 (1), p. 49) and Re- 
port and Proceedings of the World Economic Conference, held at Geneva, May 4th to 23rd, 
1927 (C 356. M. 129. 1927. II. 52). 

[48] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 49 

have accepted it in whole or in part or by general ap- 
proval. 1 It may be regarded as the international program 
for economic peace and progress. 

Economic Consultative Committee 

The first session of the Economic Consultative Com- 
mittee was held in Geneva May 14-19, 1928, exactly a 
year after the International Economic Conference. Its 
function is to survey the economic situation as it has de- 
veloped since the conference with particular attention to 
the way in which its recommendations are being applied. 

Its report 2 reviewed action taken on the Final Report 
and noted that it had influenced the independent action 
of Governments. The rising movement of tariffs had 
ceased but their decrease had not begun. As to future 
work it laid stress on the importance of the program already 
begun by the Economic Committee and pointed to the 
following new tasks: 

A study of the subjects of rationalization and industrial agree- 
ments, and the provision of adequate statistics and information 
concerning industrial development. 

The serious position of the coal and sugar industries should be 
studied to ascertain whether concerted international action could 
further the solution of the problems presented. 

Information should be collected concerning the intensification 
of agricultural production, training, cooperation, credits, means 
of transport, marketing and development of direct relations be- 
tween producers' and consumers' Cooperative Societies. 

A preliminary study should be made of some of the more import- 
ant principles and tendencies in financial and economic policy 
which tend to create or destroy conditions favorable to peace. 

The maintenance of stabilized currencies at par and prevention 
of fluctuations in the purchasing power of gold. 

1 Official Declarations concerning the Recommendations of the International Economic 
Conference, (C. E. I. 45 (1). 1928. II. 4). The Governments are: Australia, Austria, 
Belgium, British Empire, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, 
Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Luxemburg, Nether- 
lands, Norway, Persia, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Serb-Croat-Slovene State, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Union of Socialist Soviet Republics and Uruguay. 

* Official Journal, IX, p. 1114; the proceedings are C. 217. M. 73. 1928. II. 18, 
on separate sale. 

[49] 



50 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 



Economic Committee 

In June, 1927, the Economic Committee concluded that 
its immediate task was to carry out the commercial policy 
advocated by the conference. It began an inquiry con- 
cerning customs tariffs and commercial treaties on that 
basis. 1 By June, 1928, it had reached some conclusions. 
The committee then unanimously recognized that no new- 
tariffs should be instituted or existing ones recast without 
taking account of their effect on international trade. 
Customs tariffs may be established by treaty after negoti- 
ation (bargaining tariffs) or by legislation not subject to 
treaty alteration (intangible tariffs). The committee did 
not conclude whether the effect of a tariff on international 
trade was compatible with the theory of the intangible 
tariff, applied without discrimination. 

Incompatibility would exist if the intangible tariff con- 
stituted an intolerable obstacle to foreign trade. States 
applying that system should be ready to examine the claims 
of other states and establish rates for fairly long periods. 

As to bargaining tariffs the committee recommended 
reduction of the margin of negotiation, consolidation of 
tariffs and conclusion of long-term agreements. 

Not only customs tariffs but commercial policy revolves 
largely around the most-favored-nation clause, of which 
there are several conceptions in practice. A careful report 
explored this complicated subject and the committee in 
October, 1928, began seeking a formula that would com- 
mand general acceptance and serve as a basis for reducing 
the confusion which exists by reason of the numerous 
variations of current commercial policy. 

The June report laid stress upon reduction of tariffs by 
bilateral and collective action. Respecting collective action 
the results of the conference on hides, skins and bones 2 
offered a precedent. The committee chose a number of 
basic industrial products for detailed study with a view to 

i Official Journal, VIII, p. 1165; IX, p. 512. 
2 See p. 52. 

[50] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 51 

devising practical suggestions for a concerted reduction of 
tariffs on them. The products selected are aluminium, semi- 
manufactured iron products, cement, leather, log and sawn 
wood, cellulose and paper, fresh fruits and vegetables, 
rice. 1 

Administrative protectionism, the habit of national 
customs officials to bar goods by special rulings, is under 
study. 

Import and Export Prohibitions and Restrictions 

This question was studied by the Economic Committee 
as a result of a resolution passed by the Fifth Assembly 
on September 25, 1924, and culminated in a diplomatic 
conference of 34 states held at Geneva, October 17-Novem- 
ber 8, 1927, 2 and another of 29 states July 3-11, 1928, to 
complete the convention. The conference disclosed the 
extreme complexity of the problem, showed that the 
system had taken deep root in commercial policy, and that 
its abolition would affect numerous private enterprises. 
It also revealed the interdependence of certain prohibitions 
and the effect of prohibitions in one state upon the regime 
in force in other states for similar or other wares. The con- 
ference thus had to deal with concrete problems affecting 
enormous interests. The convention is the first multilateral 
treaty regulating commercial relations between states. 

The supplementary agreement 3 of July 11, 1928, com- 
pleted the lists of prohibitions temporarily recognized and 
of those not affecting international trade. 4 Six months after 
the convention is in force all other prohibitions cease. 

By the supplementary agreement the convention must 
be ratified by 18 states to come into force. The parties 

1 Economic Committee. Report . . . on the 25th Session, p. 2 (C 558, M. 177. 
1928. II. 48). 

2 Official Journal, VIII, p. 1653. 

s Official Journal, IX, p. 1256. It was signed by Germany, Austria, Belgium, Great 
Britain, Italy, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, India, Italy, 
Japan, Latvia, Luxemburg, Norway, the Netherlands, Poland, Portgual, Rumania, 
the Serb-Croat-Slovene State, Siam, Sweden, Switzerland, Czechoslovakia, Turkey and 
the United States. 

* The lists are conveniently summarized in Monthly Summary, VIII, p. 203. 

[51] 



52 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

may make entry into force dependent upon the ratifica- 
tion or accession of one or more of the following: Austria, 
Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hun- 
gary, Italy, Japan, Serb-Croat-Slovene State, Poland, 
Rumania, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United States. 
Ratifications should be deposited before September 30, 
1929, an exception being made for the United States. If 
the requisite conditions are then fulfilled, the convention 
will enter into force on January 1, 1930. 

Hides and Bones. The 1927 conference showed that 
special tariff conditions existed respecting hides and bones, 
the sources of leather, fertilizers, glue and other manu- 
factured articles. Two Conferences for the Abolition of 
Export Prohibitions and Restrictions on Hides and Bones 
were held at Geneva March 14-16, and June 28-30, 1928, 
the first attended by 12, and the second by 19 states. They 
were the first meetings summoned by the League specifically 
to limit customs tariffs on raw materials. The first con- 
ference adopted two protocols which were recommended to 
Governments; the second revised and enacted these into 
international agreements * supplementary to the convention 
of November 8, 1927. 

Veterinary Questions. The 1927 conference in its final 
act recognized that sanitary or veterinary measures might 
legitimately be applied, but endeavored to prevent such 
measures from becoming a disguised form of economic 
protection. For this reason it recommended the Council 
to undertake investigations, inquiries and consultations 
with a view to summoning one or more conferences of experts 
to study measures of proved efficacy in animal and plant 
disease and how to adjust them strictly to risks of infection. 
A Subcommittee of Experts on Veterinary Questions met 
twice in 1928 and, as immediate steps, advised that each 
state should possess a veterinary organization capable of 
exercising efficacious sanitary supervision over the whole 

i Official Journal, IX, p. 1289 and 1307. They were each signed by Austria, Bel- 
gium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, 
Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Rumania, the Serb-Croat-Slovene 
State and Switzerland. 

[52] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 53 

of its territory and that each should publish a regular health 
bulletin prepared on the standard lines adopted by the 
Committee of the International Office for Contagious 
Diseases of Animals. It will examine the import and export 
of animals, trade in their products and disinfection to do 
away with "veiled protectionism." 

Simplification of Customs Formalities 

The conference prepared by the Economic Committee was 
held at Geneva, October 15-November 3, 1923, with 35 
states participating. 

The international convention 1 relating to the simplifica- 
tion of customs formalities signed at Geneva, November 3, 
1923, came into force on November 27, 1924. The con- 
tracting states "undertake that their commercial relations 
shall not be hindered by excessive, unnecessary or arbitrary 
customs or other similar formalities." They undertake to 
revise their laws with a view to their simplification and 
adaptation to the needs of foreign trade and to the avoidance 
of all hindrance to such trade "except that which is abso- 
lutely necessary in order to safeguard the essential interests 
of the state." With respect to customs and the formalities 
of trade, they agree to abstain from any unjust discrimina- 
tion against the commerce of any contracting state, in 
accordance with legislation or reciprocal commercial agree- 
ments. Rules for simplifying formalities with respect to 
import and export prohibitions and restrictions are laid 
down. 

The prompt publication of customs regulations is stipu- 
lated and provision for their being brought to the adequate 
notice of those concerned is made. The publication of com- 
plete tariffs is enjoined, together with the desirability of 
stating duties in clear and unequivocal forms. All publica- 

1 Treaty Series, XXX, p. 371. Ratifications: Australia, Austria, Belgium, British 
Empire, Bulgaria, China, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Ger- 
many, Greece, Hungary, India, Italy, Luxemburg, French protectorate of Morocco, 
the Netherlands (including Netherlands Indies, Surinam and Curacao), New Zealand, 
Norway, Rumania, Siam, Sweden, Switzerland, Regence of Tunis, Union of South 
Africa. Accession: Persia. 

[53] 



34 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

tions respecting customs and formalities connected with 
them shall be communicated to all contracting states, to 
the Secretariat of the League and to the International 
Office for the Publication of Customs Tariffs at Brussels. 

States undertake to prevent arbitrary or unjust applica- 
tion of their laws and to insure means of redress for those 
prejudiced by abuses. Goods which form the subject of a 
dispute shall be released immediately upon the solution of 
the dispute, which must be as speedy as possible. Annual 
reports 1 of measures taken in accordance with these under- 
takings shall be summarized for the Secretariat of the 
League. 

Provisions for the free importation of commercial samples 
and to facilitate the work of traveling salesmen are given 
in Art. 10. 

Special regulations are laid down to insure the rapid 
passage of goods through the customs, 2 the examination of 
travelers' baggage, the treatment of goods in warehouses, 
warehousing charges for goods shown on manifests but 
not landed, and the cooperation of the customs offices 
concerned. Especially favorable treatment is stipulated 
for goods which are to undergo a manufacturing process, 
for articles intended for purposes of exhibition and for 
goods to be returned, such as touring vehicles, furniture 
vans, samples, etc. 

Arbitration of Commercial Disputes 
The principle of the arbitration of commercial disputes, 
resulting from international trade, by chambers of com- 
merce and business men themselves resident abroad has 
gained great popularity since the World War. The rec- 
ognition of the validity of these decisions in courts and 
otherwise required international action. As a consequence 
the Economic Committee drew up a protocol. 

i These are being communicated regularly {Official Journal, VII, p. 831, 844; VIII, 
p. 636, 1614; IX, p. 343, 733, 834). 

2 The Economic Committee is perfecting a draft convention on false customs declara- 
tions {Official Journal, VI, p. 955; VIII, p. 571). 

[54 1 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 55 

This protocol on arbitration clauses * was perfected by 
the Fourth Assembly and opened for signature September 
24, 1923. It came into force July 28, 1924. For disputes 
considered as commercial under their national law, the 
contracting states recognize the validity of agreements 
between persons, subject to different national jurisdic- 
tions, to arbitrate commercial disputes arising from their 
contracts, wherever the arbitration is to take place. The 
tribunals of the contractants will honor awards so made. 

Under the terms of the protocol the contracting parties 
undertake to recognize the validity of arbitration agree- 
ments, but insure only the execution of arbitral awards 
pronounced in their own territory. In many countries 
long and costly proceedings are essential to carry out an 
award given in the territory of another contracting party. 
The Economic Committee, therefore, considered fresh 
international action to enable traders to resort to arbitra- 
tion with full security. A Committee of Experts prepared 
a draft which was perfected as a convention 2 by the 
Eighth Assembly and opened for signature on September 
26, 1927. The convention 2 on the execution of foreign 
arbitral awards is a technical document intended to adjust 
the validity of such awards to the procedure of national 
courts. 

Unfair Competition 

The attention of the Assemblies of 1922 and 1923 was 
drawn to "the harmful effect on legitimate trade of the 
manufacture and sale of products which . . . are a form 
of fraud owing to the various devices intended to disguise 
their real nature." 3 The result was a series of draft articles 
which, after consultation with the Inter- American High 

1 Treaty Series, XXVII, p. 157. Ratifications: Albania, Austria, Belgium, British 
Empire, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Monaco, the 
Netherlands (including Netherlands Indies, Surinam and Curacao). New Zealand, 
Norway, Rumania, Spain, Switzerland. Accessions: Southern Rhodesia, Newfound- 
land, British Guiana, British Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Islands, Grenada, St. Lucia, 
St. Vincent, Gambia, Gold Coast, Kenya, Zanzibar, Northern Rhodesia, Ceylon, 
Mauritius, Gibraltar, Malta, Falkland Islands, Iraq and Palestine, Tanganyika, 
St. Helena. 

2 For text see Document C 659. M. 1928. II. 1. 

« Official Journal, V, p. 558; for data collected see p. 1474, 1485. 

[55] 



56 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

Commission, were incorporated in the International Con- 
vention for the Protection of Industrial Property revised 
at a conference at The Hague November 6, 1925. 1 

By these changes states agree to cancel the national regis- 
tration by another person of trademarks, etc., owned by 
the nationals of another state, in case of bad faith. They 
undertake to insure nationals of other states against unfair 
competition, defined as "any act contrary to honest indus- 
trial or commercial practices." 

Unification of Economic Statistics 

A joint meeting was held in London on December 4-5, 
1922, of representatives of the Economic Committee, the 
International Labor Office and the International Institute 
of Statistics, to discuss what practical measures might be 
adopted to increase the comparability of methods in use in 
different countries in the compilation of economic statistics. 

The Preparatory Committee on Statistical Methodology 2 
carried on the work in conjunction with the International 
Institute of Statistics. In 1927 the Economic Committee 
named a Preparatory Committee for the Statistical Con- 
ference. The International Conference for the Unification 
of Economic Statistics convened at Geneva November 26, 
1928, attended by delegates of 41 states to consider (1) the 
scope of economic statistics, that is to say, the field of 
economic activity which national statistics should normally 
embrace, and (2) methods to be adopted by Governments 
with a view to the comparability of industrial and com- 
mercial statistics. 

Future Conferences 

Treatment of Foreign Nationals. The attention of the 
Economic Committee was called to the treatment of foreign 
nationals and enterprises by a resolution of the Fourth 
Assembly in 1923. In May, 1925, the committee reported 
to the Council that, in general, persons exercising a profes- 

1 The added articles are Arts. 6 bis, 6 ter, 10 bis and 10 ter. 
* Official Journal, IV, p. 275, 966; V, p. 555; VIII, p. 396. 

[56] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 57 

sion or trade in a foreign country should receive the same 
treatment as nationals of that country, subject or not to 
reciprocity in their countries. The number of professions, 
industries and occupations for which national interests may 
require restrictions to be imposed on foreigners should be 
limited to the minimum compatible with the protection of 
such interests; the same rule should apply to restrictions. 
Discrimination based on the nationality of persons con- 
cerned should be avoided. 1 

A questionnaire to states enabled the committee to pre- 
pare a draft convention, which after study by Govern- 
ments, is to be laid before a conference in 1929. 

Bills of Exchange and Checks. A Committee of Experts 
at Geneva in December, 1926, reported to the Economic 
Committee that solution of the difficulties encountered by 
bankers and merchants in daily business as a result of the 
divergences between the laws of different countries on bills 
of exchange lay first in an attempt to assimilate or har- 
monize the laws of countries belonging to the Continental 
group. 2 A Committee of Legal Experts then developed 
draft conventions aimed at harmonizing the various laws 
of the continental group on bills of exchange and checks. 
Replies from Governments have been sent in and a con- 
ference is planned in 1929. 

Tariff Nomenclature. The Economic conference stated 
that a fixed nomenclature for goods subject to customs 
duties was an essential condition of equity in their appli- 
cation and ease in their collection, and recommended that 
the Council take the initiative in drawing up an appropriate 
procedure for establishing a systematic customs nomen- 
clature in accordance with a general plan covering all 
classes of goods. In July, 1927, the Economic Committee 
decided to appoint a committee of customs experts to 
study the matter. International conferences to study the 
question in 1900 at Paris and at Brussels in 1913 had dis- 
persed after finding it practically impossible to make even 

1 Official Journal, VI, p. 955, 878, 

2 Ibid., VIII, p. 575,583. 

[57] 



58 



WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 



a beginning. In October, 1928, the Subcommittee of 
Experts on the Unification of Tariff Nomenclature had 
decided on a draft framework and, after hearing, from 
Governments upon it, was ready to prepare a draft stand- 
ard nomenclature for eventual consideration by a con- 
ference. This will facilitate tariff agreements and increase 
the efficacy of the most-favored-nation clause. 

Financial Committee 

The Financial Committee has been the medium through 
which the League has contributed to the reconstruction of 
Europe. By common consent the aid of the League saved 
Austria and Hungary from disaster and anarchy and re- 
stored them to their places in the world with their autonomy 
intact. In the past such crises frequently resulted in the 
loss of autonomy or even independence. 

While the League has undertaken many other activities 
of a financial character the work of the committee con- 
centrated in loans for reconstruction or internal reform 
constitutes the largest single phase of its efforts. All these 
have involved some degree of League control or manage- 
ment. The loans are all international, that is, floated on 
several markets. The list follows: 



Country 


Protocol Amount 


Rate 


Austria 


Oct. 4, 1922 585,000,000 gold crowns . 


. 7 


Hungary 


Mar. 14, 1924 250,000,000 gold crowns . 


. I'A 


Greece 


Sept. 19, 1924 £10,000,000 


. 7 


Danzig 


Feb. 19, 1925 40,000,000 


gulden . 


. 7 


Bulgaria 


/ £2,112,000 1 
Sept. 8, 1926 < $39x5000 , 




. 7 


Estonia 


<~ «„„* J £700,000 1 
Dec. 10, 1926 j $4(0 00,000 j 




. 7 


Danzig, 


June 22, 1927 £1,900,000 


. 6y 2 


Municipality 






Danzig Har- 


July 1927 $4,500,000 


. (>y 2 


bor Board 






Bulgaria 


Sept. 12, 1927 $13,000,000 


. T l A 


Greece 


.. ifto>7 f £4,070,960 x \ 
Sept. 15, 1927 | $ 17)0 00,000 J * ' * 


. 6 




1 $19,811,327. 







[58 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 50 

Financial Reconstruction 

Austria. In March, 1921, Great Britain, France, Italy 
and Japan decided to release Austria for a period of years 
from their liens in respect of all claims for relief credits, 
reparation, etc., provided other interested Governments did 
the same and provided Austria was prepared to place the 
administration of her assets in the hands of the League 
under the international credits (Ter Meulen) scheme. 1 
The Financial Committee drew up a detailed scheme, which 
failed to be put into operation because of the slowness of 
interested Governments, especially the United States, to 
grant Austria the necessary moratorium. 2 

By February, 1922, Austria's condition had become so 
grave that a collapse was imminent. Great Britain, 
France, Italy and Czechoslovakia came to the rescue by 
providing public loans, which arrested disaster during the 
first six months of 1922. Austria's financial disorgan- 
ization continued at an increased pace. 

In August, when the crown was one-tenth of its value six 
months before and only 1/15,000 of its gold value, the 
Austrian Government made a desperate appeal to the 
Supreme Council of the Allied Premiers, then meeting in 
London. A further depreciation of the crown, said the 
Austrian spokesman, must lead to social upheavals of great 
danger to Europe itself, marking the end of an inde- 
pendent Austria. On August 15, 1922, the Supreme 
Council told Austria that "there is no prospect of further 
financial assistance to Austria from the Allied Powers, un- 
less the League were able to propose such a program of 
reconstruction ... as would induce financiers in our re- 
spective countries to come to the rescue of Austria." 

The Council at Geneva on August 31 instructed the 
Financial Committee to examine the problem in its essen- 
tials. On September 6, Premier Seipel of Austria was heard 
by the Council in public meeting. He put Austria's fate 

1 International Financial Conference, 1920, I, p. 27. 

2 See The Financial Reconstruction of Austria (Geneva, 1921) for the documents. 

[59] 



60 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

completely into the hands of the League. The Council 
invited Czechoslovakia to join the Council for this question, 
and a committee consisting of Lord Balfour (Great Britain), 
Gabriel Hanotaux (France), Marquis Imperiali (Italy), 
Premier Benes (Czechoslovakia) and Premier Seipel (Aus- 
tria) was formed to direct the solution of the problem. 

This committee organized the work, using the League's 
Economic, Financial and Legal Committees, but keeping 
in its own hands the political aspects of the question. In 
12 meetings the committee determined the general outline 
of the task, parceled its details out to the experts, heard 
their interim and final reports and finally saw the three 
protocols effecting a solution of the question signed on 
October 4. 1 The two multilateral protocols were signed by 
Great Britain, France, Italy, Czechoslovakia and Austria; 
Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain and Sweden ad- 
hered to the second. 2 

The guarantors promised to respect the political inde- 
pendence, territorial integrity and sovereignty of Austria, 
to seek no special or exclusive economic or financial advan- 
tage compromising that independence, and to comply with 
the decisions of the Council in respect to any question 
arising with regard to those matters. The program of 
reform was directed to the balancing of her budget by the 
end of 1924. The deficit in the interval, a maximum of 
650,000,000 gold crowns, was to be met by proceeds from 
a loan. This was guaranteed by Austrian assets, and further 
by the guarantor Governments in definite proportions, so 
that the subscriber to the loan has a double security, while 
the guarantor has no liability until Austrian assets prove 
insufficient. A Bank of Issue under definite and specified 
conditions was established on January 2, 1923, and Austria 
relinquished to it all rights with respect to currency utter- 
ance. A long program of Austrian reforms was carried 
out under a commissioner-general, an officer of the League 
of Nations resident in Vienna and reporting monthly to 

» Treaty Series, XII, p. 385. 
2 Ibid., XV, p. 321. 

[60] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 61 

the Council. A Committee of Control of the Guaranteeing 
Governments was provided to watch over their special 
interests. 1 

The essential features of the program were the provision 
by loan to meet the deficit during a period when financial 
reform was taking place, the arrest of the collapse of the 
crown, and the supervision of the Austrian Government's 
execution of the scheme within carefully defined and re- 
stricted limits by the Commissioner-General of the League, 
whose monthly reports for 3^ years give all necessary 
details. 2 The Commissioner-General's functions terminated 
on June 30, 1926. The period from the signing of the pro- 
tocols until that date may be summarized: 

1. October 4-December 14, 1922 — Preparation for putting 
the scheme into execution. 

2. December 15, 1922-August, 1923 — From the beginning of 
the Commissioner-General's control to the successful issue of a 
long-term reconstruction loan. The scheme of control was suc- 
cessfully established, reforms were begun, a series of special in- 
quiries made, and the necessary external loan definitely obtained. 
The period was characterized by a remarkable financial recovery 
leading to a boom and excessive stock exchange speculation. 

3. September, 1923-September, 1924 — Reconstruction work 
proceeded more slowly with modifications in the original plan. 
An agreement was effected in September, 1924, by which Austria 
pledged itself to take 15 specified measures, several of which related 
to financial re-establishment on a gold basis, and to execute speci- 
fied reforms. 3 

4. September, 1924-June, 1926 — The reforms were gradually 
effected. The process of establishing Austrian currency on a gold 
basis was completed on July 1, 1925, the Austrian crown having 
been absolutely stable since October, 1922. The unit of stabili- 
zation was the schilling, containing 0.2117208 grams of gold, 900 
fine, being equivalent to 10,000 paper crowns and worth 14^ 
cents, or 34.585 to the pound sterling. General anxiety as to the 
economic future of the country led to a special inquiry by Walter T. 

1 Treaty Series, XV, p. 321. 

2 The reports are printed separately and also in the Official Journal. 
1 Text, Official Journal, V, p. 1557. 

[61] 



62 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

Lay ton and Charles Rist, who made a report to the Council. 1 In 
September, 1925, a modified control was introduced contemplating 
a gradual relaxation by stages. 2 By June 30, 1926, the final con- 
ditions for the complete removal of the control were carried out 
and the Commissioner-General's services were terminated. 

The last formal chapter in this "great act of international 
cooperation" was the session of the Council on June 9, 
1926. 3 The Financial Committee reported Austria's house 
in order. The commissioner-general testified that Austria 
had so far recovered from her desperate condition of a few- 
years ago that she was leading a normal life and was in a 
better financial position than many other countries. 

Present Regime. The protocols of October 4, 1922, 
remain in force so that, while Austria is financially au- 
tonomous, the country has special international duties of 
a financial character. By Protocol No. Ill, par. 5, security 
for the international loan of June, 1923, is the gross re- 
ceipts of the customs and of the tobacco monopoly. Proto- 
col No. II establishes a Committee of Control in charge of 
these revenues. The Committee of Control, which con- 
sists of appointees of the guaranteeing governments, retains 
its powers under the protocols and communicates directly 
with the Austrian Government. The special account 
into which the yield of the gross revenues designed as se- 
curity continue to be paid remains under the management 
of the trustees, who draw from it the sums required for the 
service of the loan, placing the balance at the disposal of 
Austria. The trustees in this duty succeed the commis- 
sioner-general. The trustees are represented at meetings 
of the Committee of Control and furnish to it informa- 
tion requested. The Austrian Government undertakes to 
furnish information required. 

The total yield of the international loan was 879,800,000 

i The Economic Situation of Austria. Report . . . by W. T. Layton and Charles 
Rist (C. 440 (1). M. 162 (1). 1925. II). 

2 Financial Reconstruction of Austria. Dates and Conditions of Termination of 
Control (C 541. 1925. II). 

» Official Journal, VII, p. 860. The proceedings of that meeting were notable and 
very impressive. 

[62] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 63 

schillings. Of this amount 342,540,000 schillings were used 
for deficits, repayments and loan service and 332,500,000 
schillings as cover for investment expenditures, leaving 
217,600,000 schillings available at the end of control for 
allocation for productive expenditure. 

Hungary. At the beginning of 1923, Hungary, in a 
desire to raise foreign loans on the security of certain 
revenues, approached the Reparation Commission in order 
to secure the necessary release of liens on certain of her 
assets and revenues, and at the same time expressed the 
desire that the League of Nations be asked to draw up 
a plan of financial reconstruction. On September 29, 
Rumania, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State and Czecho- 
slovakia requested the Council of the League to authorize 
the Financial Committee to undertake at once any pre- 
paratory work necessary for the reconstruction of Hun- 
gary in the event of such a request from the Reparation 
Commission. The Reparation Commission on October 17 
passed the necessary resolution. 

The first stage of the League's work was completed by 
the Council in December, 1923. The Financial Committee 
had agreed upon the main lines of the scheme for financial 
reconstruction and its unanimous report was then accepted 
by the Council, which also approved the text of two proto- 
cols, along the same lines as the Austrian protocols, pre- 
sented by its Hungarian committee. 

By Protocol l No. 1 of March 14, 1924, the guarantee- 
ing Governments declare "that they will respect the po- 
litical independence, the territorial integrity and the 
sovereignty of Hungary" and "that they will not seek to 
obtain any special or exclusive economic or financial ad- 
vantage calculated directly or indirectly to compromise 
that independence." The guarantors pledge loyal ful- 
fillment of the agreements and to leave any questions at 
issue to the Council of the League. Hungary, for its part, 
undertakes to fulfill its treaty obligations and to abstain 

i Treaty Series, XXV, p. 423-440. 
[63 1 



64 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

from any act likely to prove prejudicial to the guaranties 
provided. 

Protocol No. 2 sets forth in detail the program of reform, 
pledges Hungary to the conclusion of commercial agree- 
ments with neighboring states and lays down the conditions 
for the reconstruction loan, the duties of the commissioner- 
general, the committee of control and the trustees, pro- 
vides for the assignment of revenues for the service of the 
loan and for keeping a special account, as well as for the 
establishment of a central bank of issue. 

Jeremiah Smith, Jr., of Boston, Commissioner-General 
of the League of Nations for Hungary, assumed his duties 
on May 1, 1924. The foreign loan of 250,000,000 gold 
crowns was placed in June on the American, Italian, Swiss, 
Swedish, Dutch, Czechoslovak and Hungarian markets. 
The new bank of issue opened on June 24. The recon- 
struction schedule contemplated balancing the budget by 
June 30, 1926, but it showed a surplus after October, 1924, 
and was balanced a year and a half earlier than the schedule. 
On June 10, 1926, the Council decided to suppress the 
office of commissioner-general at the end of that month. 
Controls similar to those applied in Austria entered into 
force. 1 As in Austria the currency had been absolutely 
stable and on January 1, 1927, a new currency was intro- 
duced, the pengo, equivalent to 12,500 old paper crowns, 
$0.1749 and 5.7176 to the dollar. The balance sheet of 
the National Bank was already expressed in pengos,^ with 
reserve amounting to 55% of note circulation as against a 
required 20%. On June 30, 1926, the reconstruction loan 
was valued at 266,884,211.63 gold crowns, of which there 
was a balance available of 119,459,845.14 for productive 
expenditure with the assent of the Council. 

Refugee Settlement. The Greek refugee settlement 
loan under the protocol of September 19, 1924, amounting 
to £10,000,000 was floated in December, 1924. 2 The Bul- 
garian refugee settlement loan under the protocol of Sep- 

i Official Journal, VII, p. 876. 
2 See p. 146. 

[64] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 65 

tember 8, 1926, was issued in London and New York on 
December 21, 1926. 1 

Danzig. Three loans have been issued by the Free 
City under League auspices. The municipal loan of 1925 
was virtually a private transaction but the banks inserted 
in the general bond provisions which required the assent 
of the Council. 2 By these the trustee may draw the atten- 
tion of the Council to any breach by the municipality of 
the terms of the general bond. The Council may be called 
upon to ^ settle disputes between the municipality, the 
financial institutions in charge of the loan and the trustee. 
The Free City may appeal to the Council if it considers that 
the trustee has abused his authority. The program of ex- 
penditure was subject to Council approval. 

The two Danzig loans of 1927 differed in character. That 
of the Harbor Board was for productive purposes and the 
stipulation of the Council 3 was that it be issued after the 
municipal loan. The money required by the city was not 
for productive purposes, but 45% of it was to meet obliga- 
tions arising out of the treaty of Versailles and the occupa- 
tion of 1920. Special regulations for protection of a loan 
secured on the tobacco monopoly were worked out and the 
Council appoints the trustee, who annually reports to it. 

Bulgarian Stabilization. On March 10, 1928, the Coun- 
cil approved the final plan for the Bulgarian stabilization 
loan of £5,000,000 which had been drawn up by the Finan- 
cial Committee in agreement with the Bulgarian Govern- 
ment. The protocols were finally signed on September 8, 
1928. 4 The loan is to be devoted to the repayment of the 
state debt to the National Bank in connection with the 
stabilization of the currency, to strengthening the position 
of the Agricultural Bank and the Central Cooperative Bank, 
the liquidation of budget arrears, the construction of roads 
and railways, and work in connection with the damage 

1 See p. 149. 

2 Official Journal, VI, p. 887, 967. 
• Ibid., VIII, p. 806. 

II *^t lgarian Stabilizai *°" Loan. Protocol and Annexes . . . (C. 338. M. 96. 1928. 

(65) 



66 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

caused by earthquakes during the spring of 1928. The 7V 2 % 
loan was issued November 21, 1928, at 97. The scheme in 
its general lines resembles that of the Greek stabilization 
loan. The Bulgarian Government undertakes to safeguard 
the independence of the National Bank from any political 
influence by the appointment by the Council of a technical 

adviser. . r 

Greek Stabilization and Refugees. The exhaustion ot 
the loan for refugee settlement work and the state of its 
currency caused Greece to raise the question of a loan for 
£9,000,000, one-third to be devoted to completing the 
refugee settlement program, one-third for budget arrears 
and one-third for the new bank of issue. Greek finances 
were in a complicated state, one outstanding question being 
with the United States. During the war, the United States 
Treasury extended to the Greek Government a credit 
which had not been exhausted. When the United States 
brought this indebtedness to its attention, the Greek 
Government stated that refunding was not due until the 
entire credit was turned over. Negotiations resulted in a 
United States Treasury agreement to advance the Greek 
Government, as part of an agreement refunding the total 
indebtedness, the sum of $12,167,000 at 4%, redeemable in 
20 years. A bill to that effect was introduced into Congress. 
This American agreement accounts for £2,500,000 of the 
required amount, and in its technical aspects has the same 
securities as the loan issued under the auspices of the 
League. The loan protocol for the remaining £6,500,000 
was signed at Geneva September 15, 1927, 1 and the loan 
issued in London, New York, Rome, Stockholm and Zurich 
in sterling and dollar bonds at 91, with 6%, on January 31, 
1928. By the terms of the protocol the Greek minister of 
finance makes a semi-annual report to the League. 2 Greek 
currency was stabilized on a gold basis at 375 drachma to the 
pound sterling on May 14, 1928, on which date the new 
bank of issue was opened. 

i Greek Stabilisation and Refugee Loan. Protocol and Annexes (C. 556. M. 198. 
1927. II. 74). 

2 Official Journal, IX, p. 488, 1034, 1707. 

[66] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 67 

Estonia. The Estonian Government in September, 
1924, requested the League to send experts to study the 
economic and financial crisis in that country. The report 
recommended that the bank of Estonia should be made 
completely independent of the state and reorganized on the 
principles adopted for the banks of issue for Austria, Hun- 
gary and Danzig and that a mortgage institute be created 
to take over all Government long-term loan operations. 
These recommendations were accepted and a scheme of 
reform involving an international loan of £1,350,000 was 
arranged. The protocol signed December 10, 1926, pro- 
vides for the appointment by the Council of a loan trustee 
and for a foreign adviser to the Estonian bank of issue. 1 
The loan was issued in June, 1927. 

Counterfeiting of Currency 

The question of forged currency was discussed by the 
Council on June 10, 1926, as a result of a communication 
from the French Government. In this letter, 2 M. Briand 
drew attention to numerous cases in which the national 
currency of various countries had been forged. In his 
opinion, such forgeries were not only an attack upon the 
financial strength of the country whose currency was 
counterfeited; they might also, as a direct consequence, 
disturb international public order. 

The Financial Committee, to which the question was 
referred, sent a questionnaire to 43 banks of issue, of which 
20 replied in detail. An international convention was 
generally favored in order to homologate legislative meas- 
ures and cooperation between the judicial and police author- 
ities. The Mixed Committee authorized by the Council on 
December 10 was made up of four delegates of banks of 
issue, four specialists in international criminal law and 
three prosecution authorities, the latter two groups nomi- 

Trl^SeZXiSrp n m ReMm in Estonia ' Protocd (c ' 227 ' M ' 89 - 1927 - IL 45 >« 

2 Official Journal, VII, p. 950. 



[67 



68 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

nated by seven Governments. The draft convention 1 and 
report were circulated to Governments for consideration on 
December 6, 1927, 2 and the conference to prepare it for 
signing is set for opening at Geneva on April 9, 1929. 

Mixed Greco-Bulgarian Emigration Commission 
The operation of the convention of November 27, 1919, 
for reciprocal emigration between Bulgaria and Greece has 
from the beginning been managed by a commission ap- 
pointed by the Council of the League. 3 The extensive 
interchange of population resulted in financial arrange- 
ments for the liquidation of properties abandoned by 
Bulgarians or Greeks who had elected to take up residence 
in the country of their nationality. A plan of Payment for 
the properties involved was adopted on December 8 19 ZZ, 
and its liquidation has been effected through Greek and 
Bulgarian 6% loans, the final certificates of which were due 
for amortization as from January 1, 1925. Documents 
presented to the Council on September 3, 1927, indicated 
that of a total of 40,000 claims presented by emigrants, 
the number of liquidations had risen to 10,600 and that 
the question of providing satisfactory security for the 
bonds given in liquidation to emigrants had definitely 

arisen 

The problem was referred to the Financial Committee 
which worked out an agreement, signed at Geneva on 
December 9, 1927, by the representatives of Bulgaria and 
Greece and the president of the Mixed Commission. By 
this arrangement, the provisional certificates are to be 
exchanged for final certificates and the funds resulting from 
the Uquidation of properties - some $35 000,000 - are to 
be deposited in the National Bank of Bulgaria and the 

i Report and Draft Convention, p. 18 (C 523. M. 181. 1927. II. 70). 

2 Official Journal, IX, p. 121. 

» See p. 171. 

i Official Journal, VIII, p. 776,885. 

• Financial Committee. Report ... of 29th Session, p. 5 (C 643. M. 211. 1927- 



II. 75), 



[68 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 69 

Greek Bank of Issue as sinking funds. Semi-annual draw- 
ings result in the owners of the liquidated properties re- 
covering their money. 

Central Bank Statistics 

At the suggestion of the Financial Committee, repre- 
sentatives of the Information and Statistical Services of 
25 banks of issue met from April 11 to April 17, 1928, in Paris 
at the Banque de France. The banks represented were: 
The National Banks of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czecho- 
slovakia, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, France, 
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, 
Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Rumania, Serb-Croat- 
Slovene State, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland, the Fed- 
eral Reserve Bank of New York and the Federal Reserve 
Board. 

The discussions were directed to the examination of the 
characteristic features of the different money markets, the 
volume of money and credit, clearing statistics, the velocity 
of circulation, indices of economic activity, the definition 
of the different rates of money and the manner in which 
these rates are quoted. In all these discussions the primary 
object was to find means of rendering monetary statistics 
more comparable and easy of interpretation, and how such 
information might be exchanged between banks. 

Double Taxation 

The first step of the Financial Committee in solving the 
problem of double taxation was the appointment of a Com- 
mittee of Economic Experts, who presented a compre- 
hensive report on April 3, 1923, 1 in which was developed 
the full theory of this first "financial problem of universal 
importance" 2 to be handled by the League. The Financial 
Committee next organized a committee of government tax- 

1 League of Nations, E. F. S. 73 /F. 19. 

2 Resolutions and Recommendations . . . Sixth Session {Official Journal, Spec. Sup. 

JNO« oi, p, 15. 

[69] 



70 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

ation officials 1 to study the subject from the administra- 
tive point of view and in relation to the problem of fiscal 

evasion. 

In January, 1927, the result of this examination of the 
problem was studied by a committee of taxation experts, 2 
designated by and acting for their Governments, who 
developed two draft conventions on double taxation and 
two others on fiscal evasion. The question was still so 
complicated that it was deemed advisable to summon in 
October, 1928, 3 a conference of fiscal experts, who revised 
the drafts before them with the intention of having them 
in shape to submit to a diplomatic conference for the per- 
fection of conventions in 1929 or 1930. 

2. Organization for Communications and Transit. 

Art. 23 of the Covenant provides that, "subject to 
and in accordance with the provisions of international con- 
ventions existing or hereafter to be agreed upon the Mem- 
bers of the League: (e) will make provision to secure and 
maintain freedom of communication and of transit and 
equitable treatment for the commerce of all Members of 

the League." 

On February 13, 1920, the Council proposed that the 
Committee of Ports, Waterways and Railways of the 
Peace Conference, together with representatives of states 
having special interest in the subject, undertake a pre- 
liminary survey of the problem involved in carrying out 
this provision. A conference was held for that purpose 
in the summer of 1920 at Paris and the committee trans- 
formed itself into a provisional committee on communica- 
tions and transit of the League. 

The proposals of the committee called for a general 
conference to prepare international agreements and rec- 
ommendations suitable for embodiment in national laws, 
and draft resolutions to be submitted to the Assembly. 

i League of Nations, C 115. M. 55. 1925. II and C. 216. M. 85. 1927. II. 40. 
2 Ibid., C. 216. M. 85. 1927. II. 40. 
*Ibid., C. 495. M. 197. 1928. II. 46. 

[70] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 71 

It also recommended a permanent committee to sit con- 
tinuously and act both as the bureau of the conferences 
and as a technical advisory body. These recommenda- 
tions were approved by the Council and the First Assembly. 

Conferences 

the General Conference on Freedom of Communica- 
tions and Transit is held at intervals of three years. Con- 
ferences have been held as follows: 

1. Barcelona, March 10-April 20, 1921; 44 states represented. 

2. Geneva, November 15-December, 1923; 41 states represented. 
The United States sent an "official observer." Organizations 
represented in an advisory capacity were: International Chamber 
of Commerce, Central Railway Transport Office, the International 
Union of Railway Administration, the four International River 
Commissions for the Danube, the Elbe, the Oder and the Rhine, 
the Hydraulic Danube Commission, and the League's Advisory 
Committee for Communications and Transit. 

3. Geneva, August 23-September 2, 1927; 41 states represented, 
including the United States and three other non-Members of the 
League. There were also present in an advisory capacity, besides 
representatives of the Saar Governing Commission, delegates from 
the following: 

_ Members of the Advisory and Technical Committee for Communica- 
tions and Transit, Experts appointed by the Advisory and Technical 
Committee for Communications and Transit, Permanent Technical 
Hydraulic System Commission of the Danube, International Elbe 
Commission, International Oder Commission, Central Commission for 
Rhine Navigation, International Railway Union, International Central 
Railway Transport Office, International Chamber of Commerce, 
International Shipping Conference, International Federation of Trans- 
port Workers, Christian Union of Transport Workers, International 
Labor Office, International Broadcasting Union, International Air 
Traffic Association, International Commission for Air Navigation, 
International Technical Committee of Legal Experts for Air Navigation! 

Advisory and Technical Committee 
The Advisory and Technical Committee on Communica- 
tions and Transit was organized by the Barcelona Con- 

[71] 



72 



WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 



ference in accordance with the resolution of the First As- 
sembly. The committee is a consultative and technical 
body to assist the Council and the Assembly of the League 
in discharging its functions. It may arrange for any 
future conference and prepare its agenda; it exchanges all 
requisite information with the appropriate ministries of 
the Members of the League; it is intrusted with the in- 
vestigation of any disputes which may be referred to the 
League under Arts. 336, 376 and 386 of the treaty of 
Versailles and corresponding articles in the other treaties 
of peace, and will endeavor to adjust such disputes when- 
ever possible by conciliation between the parties; in the 
event of such disputes being brought before the Permanent 
Court of International Justice, the committee may be 
called upon to assist the Court. 1 

The committee is governmental, being composed of one 
representative for each Member of the League represented 
permanently on the Council, together with (now 13) 
Members appointed as determined by the conference, 
taking into account as far as possible technical interests and 
geographical representation. The total membership shall 
not exceed one-third of the Members of the League of 
Nations. The states represented have been: 



1921 

France 

Great Britain 

Italy 

Japan 

Belgium 

Brazil 

Chile 

China 

Cuba 

Denmark 

Estonia 

Netherlands 

Poland 

Spain 



1924 

France 

Great Britain 

Italy 

Japan 

Austria 

Belgium 

Chile 

China 

Colombia 

Cuba 

Greece 

Lithuania 

Norway 

Poland 



i Conference de Barcelone, Comptes rendus 
isation. . ., p. 58-60. 

[72] 



1927 

France 

Germany 

Great Britain 

Italy 

Japan 

Argentina 

Austria 

Colombia 

Greece 

Latvia 

Netherlands 

Panama 

Portugal 

Salvador 

et textes relatifs au Rlglement d' organ- 



lis 


ITERNATIONA 


L COOPERATION 


1921 

Switzerland 
Uruguay 


3 

Rumania 
Salvador 
Spain 
Venezuela 


L924 1927 

Serb-Croat-Slovene 

State 
Siam 
Sweden 
Switzerland 



73 



The committee is engaged in one of the most technical 
fields with which the League concerns itself. As a conse- 
quence it divided into seven committees in 1922. To these 
have been added experts on specific subjects and a series 
of temporary committees has further been created. 1 The 
work engaging the attention of the committee is indicated 
by that of the committees. The committees maintain 
close touch with many technical international organizations, 
especially those dealing with air traffic. 

The third conference made an exhaustive study of the 
collection and exchange of general information on com- 
munications and transit. The United States delegation 
took an active and important part in this work, the head 
of the delegation being chairman of the committee. The 
resolution consisted of a general decision and of detailed 
suggestions as to the kind of information which might be 
collected on ports and maritime navigation, inland navi- 
gation, railways, electric questions, road traffic and air 
navigation. This information should bear upon agree- 
ments between states, bills published, acts and regulations 
in preparation; it should further include general data as 
to work planned or proceeding, statistics, etc. 2 

Conference of Press Experts 
The Conference of Press Experts met at Geneva August 
24-29, 1927. It originated from a proposal submitted by 
the Chilean delegation to the Assembly of 1925. The 
conference was attended by 63 experts, 20 assessors and 
35 technical advisers from 38 countries, members and non- 



1 For list see Monthly Summary, No. 1 of each year. 

nicatl 

[73 



2 Third General Conference on Communications and Transit, Vol. II, p. 52 (C 558 (a) 



74 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

Members of the League, representing not only the different 
continents, but also the various categories of press interests 
— newspaper proprietors, news agencies, press bureaus 
and journalists. Its debates resulted in the adoption of 
resolutions which cover a large part of the technical work 
of the press. 1 

The first series of these resolutions needed exhaustive 
technical study, and the Council requested the Secretary- 
General to ask the Organization for Communications and 
Transit to continue this technical study with the help of 
press associations interested in these questions. 

As to customs regulations applicable to newspapers the 
Committee at its 12th session advised summoning a special 
conference of experts to submit to European Governments 
definite recommendations and decided to ask Governments 
levying special duties whether it was possible to abolish 
them. The Committee expected to have in hand before 
1929 the opinion of Governments with regard to the trans- 
port of newspapers and periodicals by rail. Rates for air 
transport are being examined. Other questions under 
examination are the reduction of railroad tariffs, passport 
visas and identity cards. A Special Committee of Tele- 
graphic and Press Experts in May, 1928, submitted rec- 
ommendations to the Committee concerning priority for 
press telegrams and wireless messages, "urgent" press 
telegrams and wireless messages, long-distance telegraph 
and wireless communications, regional telegraphic agree- 
ments, telephone rates, the authorization to receive press 
messages by wireless, wireless rates, code telegrams, and 
the importance of telegraphic and wireless communications 
between different continents. 

A second series of resolutions of the conference depends 
on the action of Governments for realization. The Coun- 
cil on December 7, 1927, 2 asked the Governments what 
action could be taken on the resolution respecting the pro- 
tection of news: 

i Conference of Press Experts. . . . Final Resolutions ... (A. 43. 1927, 8). 
2 Official Journal, IX, p. 136. 

[74] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 75 

The Conference of Press Experts lays down as a fundamental principle 
that the publication of a piece of news is legitimate subject to the 
condition that the news in question has reached the person who pub- 
lishes it by regular and unobjectionable means, and not by an act of 
unfair competition. No one may acquire the right of suppressing news 
of public interest. 

a. Unpublished News. The conference is of opinion that full protec- 
tion should be granted to unpublished news or news in course of trans- 
mission or publication in those countries in which such protection does 
not already exist. . . . 

There shall be no preferential right in official news issued by a Gov- 
ernment or Government Department or by an official representing a 
Government or Government Department. All such news may be 
published without restriction in full or in part. 

Newspapers, press agencies, press bureaus, and newspaper corre- 
spondents and representatives shall have free and equal opportunity 
of access to and transmission of such news. 

b. Published News. In view of the widely differing conditions 
obtaining in various countries, the conference is of opinion that the 
question of the protection of published news, whether reproduced in 
the press or by broadcasting, is one for the decision of the respective 
Governments concerned, and recommends that any Governments to 
whom application in this respect is made by its country's press, should 
sympathetically consider the advisability of granting suitable protec- 
tion. . . . 

Governments were asked what action they intended to 
take on resolutions respecting professional facilities for 
journalists, including special resolutions on travel tours, 
schools for journalists, scholarships, double taxation of 
journalists living abroad, reductions of fares, equality of 
treatment for foreign journalists and facilities for inquiry 
afforded to foreign journalists. 

The Council drew the special attention of Governments 
to the following passage in the resolution on censorship in 
peace time: 

However, so long as, contrary to the principle of the liberty of the 
press, censorship still exists in any country, the conference asks for 
the following minimum guaranties: 

1. That telegrams submitted to censorship should be examined by 
specialists and dispatched with the greatest promptitude possible. 

2. That journalists should be informed of the instructions given to 
these specialists so as to enable them to make their own dispositions. 

[75] 



76 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

3. That they should be informed of the passages suppressed in their 
dispatches as well as of exceptional delays in their transmission, and 
that they should be given the option of sending or withholding tele- 
grams which have been either censored or delayed. 

4. That the transmission charges paid in advance for telegrams which 
have been either censored or delayed should be reimbursed in proportion 
to the number of words suppressed. 

5. That a complete equality of treatment should be granted to all 
journalists without exception. 

Lastly, the Council itself took note of the resolutions 
dealing with courses for journalists at Geneva, the estab- 
lishment in newspapers of a special heading on the League 
of Nations, regional press understandings, and two others 
on the publication or distribution of tendencious news and 
on the press combating hatred between nationalities. 

Freedom of Transit 

The convention and statute on freedom of transit 1 
signed at Barcelona, April 20, 1921, has been in force since 
October 31, 1922. The statute defines traffic in transit 
as persons, baggage and goods, as well as any means of 
transport, which is taken across the territory of a state on 
a complete journey which begins and terminates beyond 
the frontier of the state in question . The contracting states 
engage to facilitate such traffic and agree to make no dis- 
tinction respecting it on the basis of " nationality of per- 
sons, the flag of vessels, the place of origin, departure, 
entry exit or destination, or any circumstances relating to 
the ownership of goods" or means of transport. Traffic 
shall not be subject to special duties on account of transit. 
Tariffs applicable to traffic in transit "shall be so fixed as 
to facilitate international traffic as much as possible" and 

i Treaty Series, VII, p. 11, Ratifications: Albania, Austria, Belgium, British Em- 
pire (including Newfoundland), Bulgaria, Chile, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Estonia, 
Finland, France, Greece, India, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Netherlands (including Nether- 
lands Indies, Surinam and Curacao), New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Rumania, Sweden, 
Switzerland. Accessions: Federated Malay States (Perak, Selangor, Negri Sem- 
bilan and Pahang), Non-Federated Malay States (Brunei, Johore, Kedah, Pedis, 
Kelantan and Trengganu), Palestine (British mandate), Free City of Danzig, Ger- 
many, Hungary, Peru, Siam. Subject to ratification: Peru. 

[76] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 77 

are to be "reasonable as regards both their rates and the 
method of their application." 

The statute does not bind contracting states to afford 
transit for passengers whose admission to its territories is 
forbidden or for goods whose importation is prohibited on 
grounds of public health or security or as a precaution 
against disease of animals or plants. The statute con- 
tinues in force in time of war so far as the rights and duties 
of belligerents and neutrals permit. Deviations from its 
provisions are permissible in exceptional cases of "an 
emergency affecting the safety of the state or the vital 
interests of the country." It does not abrogate treaties 
in force with respect to transit or the withdrawal of facilities 
greater than those provided for. 

Passports and Identity Certificates. The provisional 
committee convened at Paris on October 15-21, 1920, a 
Conference on Passports, Customs Formalities and Through 
Tickets. This conference was convinced "that the many 
difficulties affecting personal relations between the peoples 
of various countries constitute a serious obstacle to the 
resumption of normal intercourse and to the economic re- 
covery of the world." The conference passed a series of 
resolutions x with the primary purpose of securing uniform 
practice in the various states. These proposals, which 
were of an administrative character, greatly simplified 
travel among the many states accepting them. 

In the Second Passport Conference 38 Governments 
were represented at Geneva, May 12-18, 1926. The pro- 
gram was based on a resolution of the Sixth Assembly and 
in addition aimed to carry out resolutions of the 1924 
Rome Emigration Conference. The conference adopted a 
series of recommendations aiming principally at technical 
improvements in passports of the international type and 
in methods of establishing passports; the prolongation of 
the duration of their validity, and its extension to all foreign 
countries, or to as large groups of countries as possible; 
the reduction of passport fees, which should in no case 

1 Official Journal, I, 8, p. 58, 

[77] 



78 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

exceed the expenditure entailed by their issue; and the 
simplification of frontier control. 

The conference 1 was in favor of the total abolition of 
exit visas and recommended that the suppression of en- 
trance and transit visas should be made as general as pos- 
sible by means of interstate agreements. It also recom- 
mended that facilities should be granted to travelers, 
enabling them to break their journey in the countries 
through which they passed, more especially in ports of 
call, even though their passport should bear no transit 
visa; that visas should be valid for two years, or for a 
period equal to that of the validity of the passport, and 
that they should be good for an unlimited number of jour- 
neys and for all frontiers. 

It was further recommended that the visa fee should not 
exceed : 

(1) 5 gold francs for entrance visas valid for a single 

journey; 

(2) 10 gold francs for entrance visas valid for several 

journeys; 

(3) 1 gold franc for transit visas of unlimited validity. 
The conference considered that fees should not vary 

according to the nationality of the passport-holder, his 
itinerary, or the flag of the ship upon which he embarked. 
It recommended that the issue of passports, identity papers 
and visas should be organized so as to simplify formalities 
and to spare travelers and emigrants long and expensive 
journeys. Visas should be delivered within the shortest 
possible time. The conference recommended that frontier 
control should be carried out, whenever possible, when 
the trains were in motion ; should this be impossible, during 
the stoppage of trains at one of the two frontier stations, 
and that police inspection by the two countries concerned 
should be effected simultaneously or follow rapidly upon one 
another. It drew attention to the fact that these im- 
provements would be of little value unless agreements were 

i See Minutes of the Plenary Meetings (1926. VIII. 4) and Final Act (1926. VIII. 2). 

[78 1 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 79 

also concluded for the accomplishment of customs formal- 
ities in the same conditions. 1 

In connection with refugee problems, Fridtjof Nansen, 
the High Commissioner, inaugurated a system of identity 
certificates which has served a useful purpose for hundreds 
of thousands of Russian, Armenian and other refugees. 
At a small technical conference at Geneva on July 3-5, 
1922, 16 governments agreed upon the form of a certificate 
of identity and rules for its issuance for the purpose of en- 
abling Russian refugees both to remain in the countries 
where they found themselves and to travel. 2 

While this system worked well, the problem of identify- 
ing persons without nationality status continued. The 
Second Passport Conference in its final act, signed at 
Geneva on May 18, 1926, incorporated recommendations 
on this subject. 3 The complications of the problem re- 
sulted in summoning a committee of experts which held 
two sessions prior to the Third General Conference on 
Communications and Transit. The latter on September 
2, 1927, adopted four recommendations 4 to establish an 
international system of identity and traveling documents 
for persons without nationality or of doubtful nationality. 

Ports and Maritime Navigation 

The Permanent Committee for Ports and Maritime 
Navigation is a double one with specialist members for the 
two subjects. 

The Committee for Ports has as its special concern the 
development of the regime laid down in the convention and 
statutes on international regime of maritime ports. 

» Replies from Governments on the application of the recommendations are in 
Official Journal, IX, p. 1329, 1414. 

2 Official Journal, III, p. 927. The countries which adopted the above arrangement 
were: Austria, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Chile, China, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France 
Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithu- 
ania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Sweden, Switzerland, Union 
of South Africa, United States of Mexico. 

» Official Journal, VII, p. 1095. 

* Ibid., VIII, p. 1611; for replies, IX, p. 1325, 1415. 



[79] 



80 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

The Committee for Maritime Navigation has given 
special attention to safety of life at sea, which was the 
subject of an international convention concluded at 
London in July, 1914, following the Titanic disaster, but 
which was not generally ratified. The international ice 
patrol of the North Atlantic was provided for by the 
convention, but has been conducted on the initiative of the 
United States alone in the interval. The committee, after 
extensive studies of the problem, with the aid of the Inter- 
national Hydrographic Bureau, brought the matter to a 
position where a conference to revise and complete the 1914 
convention is scheduled for 1929. 

A Technical Committee for Maritime Tonnage Measure- 
ment was set up in 1926 to bring into effect uniform prac- 
tice. While the British regulations have been almost 
universally adopted, the application of them in different 
countries varies, and there are diverse methods of calcu- 
lating gross and net tonnage. 

A temporary Technical Committee on Buoyage and 
Lighting of Coasts has been developing methods to im- 
prove and unify such aids to navigation as lighthouse 
signals, buoyage regulations by day and by night, wire- 
less or radio beacons and coast and port signals, including 
storm, ice, tide and high sea signals. 

Navigable Waterways. The convention and statute on 
the regime of navigable waterways of international con- 
cern l signed at Barcelona April 20, 1921, has been in force 
from October 31, 1922. The statute defines such water- 
ways as: 

(1) "All parts, which are naturally navigable to and 
from the sea, of a waterway which in its course . . . sepa- 
rates or traverses different states," as well as waterways 
connecting therewith which separate or traverse different 
states. 

(2) Natural or artificial waterways or parts thereof 
expressly placed under the regime of the general conven- 
tion by treaty agreements. On the parts of such water- 

i Treaty Series, VII, p. 35. 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 81 

ways under their authority, the contracting states "accord 
free exercise of navigation to the vessels flying the flag of 
any one of the other contracting states." 

(3) Navigable waterways which are, or may in the fu- 
ture be, controlled by international commissions on which 
nonriparian states are represented. 

The nationals, property and flags of all contracting 
states shall be treated on a footing of perfect equality in 
all respects. No distinction shall be made respecting 
the nationals, property or flags of riparian and nonripa- 
rian states, and no exclusive rights of navigation shall be 
accorded. 

Exceptions of a practical character are stipulated. 
No dues, other than those imposed in the interest of 
navigation, shall be levied anywhere on international water- 
ways. The rules of the statute respecting freedom of 
transit apply to transit on international waterways. 

In the ports on these waterways the nationals, property 
and flags of all contracting states enjoy a treatment equal to 
that accorded to the trade of the riparian state controlling 
the port. Riparian states are bound to refrain from all 
measures likely to prejudice the navigability of the water- 
way or to reduce the facilities for navigation. Equitable 
arrangements are made for the upkeep of works affecting 
navigability and for restrictions on navigation necessitated 
by local conditions. Allocation of expenses for the up- 
keep of facilities to navigation are provided for in detail. 
In this connection, treaties establishing international com- 
missions are to be appropriately applied. 

Riparian states may issue customs, police, sanitary 
and administrative regulations respecting their respective 
portions of the waterways, but the great desirability of 
agreement rendering them uniform is recognized. The 
statute continues in force in time of war so far as the 
rights and duties of belligerents and neutrals permit. It 
does not impose upon a contracting state "any obligation 
conflicting with its rights and duties as a Member of the 
League of Nations." 

[81] 



82 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

An additional protocol l accords equality of treatment for 
communication on all navigable waterways under national 
control for commerce not involving transshipment. 

Maritime Ports. The convention and statute on the 
international regime of maritime ports 2 and the protocol 
of signature, signed at Geneva on December 9, 1923, entered 
into force on July 26, 1926. The statute defines maritime 
ports for its purposes as all those "which are normally fre- 
quented by seagoing vessels and used for foreign trade." 
Contracting states reciprocally grant equality of treatment 
with its own vessels as regards freedom of access to such 
ports, their use and the full enjoyment of the benefits 
as regards navigation and commercial operations which it 
affords to vessels, their cargoes and passengers. Equality 
of treatment covers facilities of all kinds such as allocation 
of berths, loading and unloading facilities and all dues and 
charges levied. Measures required for the proper conduct 
of the business of the port are fully within the jurisdiction 
of the competent authorities, provided they comply with 
the principle of equality of treatment. Dues and charges 
shall be of public record, and customs and other analogous 
duties are imposed without any distinction of flag. Unless 
special reasons justify an exception, customs duties in a 
maritime port may not exceed such duties levied on other 
frontiers. 

The statute implies reciprocity, and contracting states 
reserve the power of suspending its benefits with reference 
to vessels of a contracting state which does not effectively 
apply its provisions. In case of dispute over such action, 
either state may refer the matter to the Permanent Court 
of International Justice for adjustment under summary 
procedure. 

The statute does not apply to the maritime coasting 
trade, nor to fishing vessels or their catches. States re- 
serve the right to make such towage arrangements as they 
see fit, to organize and administer pilotage services under 

i Treaty Series, VII, p. 65. 
2 Ibid., LVIII, p. 285. 

[82] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 83 

their own rules, and to enact special legislation respecting 
the transport of emigrants. The statute applies both to 
publicly and privately controlled vessels, but not to war- 
ships or vessels performing police or administrative func- 
tions. Special treaty rights conferred upon a foreign 
state within a defined area of a maritime port for the pur- 
pose of facilitating transit are not to be regarded as in- 
equality of treatment, but the benefiting state shall not 
acquire thereby advantages with respect to the treatment 
of the vessels of third states trading with the beneficiary. 

Exceptions from the rules in case of an emergency af- 
fecting the safety of the state and the maintenance of 
prohibitions respecting the entrance of forbidden passen- 
gers and goods are set forth. The statute continues in 
force in time of war so far as belligerent and neutral rights 
and duties permit. Applicable provisions of the statute 
on the international regime of railways are incorporated in 
the agreement. 

Maritime Flag. The declaration recognizing the right 
to a flag of states having no seacoast, signed at Barcelona, 
April 20, 1921, is very simple. The contracting states 
"recognize the flag flown by the vessels of any state hav- 
ing no seacoast which are registered at some one specified 
place situated in its territory; such place shall serve as the 
port of registry of such vessels." l 

Inland Navigation 

The Permanent Committee for Inland Navigation began 
work in 1924. In 1922, the Advisory and Technical Com- 
mittee passed a resolution asking the various European 
river commissions for suggestions respecting the measure- 
ments of tonnage for vessels employed in inland naviga- 
tion. A convention of 1898 and a supplementary ar- 
rangement of 1908 were no longer entirely applicable. A 
Technical Committee produced a draft convention, and 
the Council convoked a conference in Paris, November 
20-27, 1925, which drew up a convention. 

1 Treaty Series, VII, p. 73. 

[83 1 



84 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

The reports made by Walker D. Hines on the Danube 
and Rhine discussed below called attention to the diversity 
of private law applicable to inland navigation. As a con- 
sequence, the Permanent Committee set up a Committee 
on Private Law in Inland Navigation, which has been 
collecting comprehensive information regarding such sub- 
jects as the nationality of vessels, ownership, mortgages 
and privileges, rules applying to collisions, contracts of 
employment and labor conditions. 

In addition, this field of work called for the establish- 
ment of a Committee on Statistics of Inland Navigation, 
which was appointed by the Advisory Committee on 
July 1, 1924, and serves the whole field of the Permanent 
Committee. 

Danube and Rhine Inquiries. A postwar difficulty was 
the dislocation of navigation on the Danube, partly owing 
to the redivision of its banks among several states and the 
new trade regulations which they had imposed. The 
Danube has been under international control since the es- 
tablishment of the European Commission of the Danube in 
1856. This commission has jurisdiction over the maritime 
Danube from Braila to Sulina. In addition, the Danube 
International Commission has jurisdiction over the river 
upstream from Braila. Together they are charged with 
keeping the channel clear and maintaining navigation 
facilities. 

In 1920 the disuse of the river during the World War 
was found to have permitted the formation of shoals seri- 
ously interfering with navigation. At the instance of the 
Committee for Communications and Transit, Walker D. 
Hines, former director-general of the United States Rail- 
road Administration and later arbitrator for questions 
raised in the peace treaties concerning tonnage distribution 
on European waterways, was appointed to investigate the 
problems involved. Major Brehon B. Somervell, Corps of 
Engineers, U. S. A., was appointed to assist him and con- 
ducted a preliminary investigation before Mr. Hines' 
arrival at Geneva in April, 1925. 

[841 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 85 

The Hines report on Danube navigation l examined the 
conditions of traffic, the restrictions to international trade 
imposed by riverain states, the problems of maintaining 
navigation, the extent and mode of operation of the navi- 
gation companies, the complications of frontier formalities 
and the relation between Danube transportation and con- 
necting systems. The extent of existing friction, the lack 
of capital and other conditions were carefully examined. 
The report afforded a sound analytical basis for improve- 
ment of conditions, which have since been studied. 

Mr. Hines was also appointed to make a similar study of 
Rhine navigation, 2 that river being also international in 
character. He found that navigation conditions on the 
Rhine were principally due to the railway policy of riparian 
states and that the development of navigation was un- 
favorably influenced by the character of taxes and customs 
formalities. As in the case of the Danube, the analysis of 
conditions opened the way to their improvement. 

Vessel Measurement. The convention regarding the 
measuring of vessels employed in inland navigation 3 and 
protocol of signature, signed at Paris November 27, 1925, 
entered into force from October 1, 1927. 4 A technical 
annex to this convention lays down in detail the rules for 
the measurement of vessels employed in inland navigation, 
including forms of certificate and distinguishing letters for 
vessels. Measurement certificates issued by the competent 
authorities of a contracting state under these regulations 
shall be acceptable to the authorities of other contracting 
states as equivalent to their own certificates. State regu- 
lations for the execution of the provisions of the conven- 
tion shall be communicated to other contracting states 
three months before their application. Parties to the con- 
vention undertake to measure any vessel for which such a 

i League of Nations, C. 444 (a). M. 164 (a). 1925. VIII. 
2 Ibid., C. 444. M. 164. 1925. VIII. 

• Ibid., C 107. M. 50. 1926. VIII 1. and C L. 136. 1926. VIII. 11. 

* Treaty Series, LXVII, p. 63. Ratifications: Austria, Belgium, British Empire 
(for Great Britain and Northern Ireland), Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, 
the Netherlands, Rumania, Spain, Switzerland. 

[85] 



86 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

request is made. A measurement certificate is valid for 
ten years, and a demand for remeasurement may not be 
made within that time unless extensive repairs or altera- 
tions in the vessel have been made. Lists of vessels meas- 
ured shall be communicated to all contracting states under 
such conditions, that all registration officers shall have 
up-to-date information. Notification of the loss of any 
vessel shall be made within three months of the establish- 
ment of that fact. 

Transport by Rail 

The Permanent Committee for Transport by Rail began 
work with special reference to European problems already 
covered by international agreement. Transportation of 
merchandise by railroads was covered by a convention 
signed at Bern, October 14, 1890, with additions in 1893, 
1895, 1898, and 1906; while on May 15, 1886, a convention 
regarding the sealing of railway trucks subject to customs 
inspection, and another regarding a technical standardiz- 
ation of railroads, were signed. 1 The subcommittee has 
secured more general acceptance of these conventions, and 
approved the principles agreed on at the Portorose Con- 
ference of Succession States November 23, 1921. 2 

In 1926, the committee gave attention to public railroad 
facilities for the League as a consequence of the possible 
need for rapid movement, to which attention was drawn in 
the Bulgaro-Greek frontier incident. Various suggestions 
were made, and it was especially noted that great improve- 
ment in railroad connections could be made. 

The committee, while studying such questions as the 
nomenclature of railway tariffs, the unification of railroad 
statistics and of transport documents, has devoted its 
attention to the problems of combined transport since the 
entrance of the convention into force. It has set up a 
Committee on Combined Transport, a Subcommittee on 
Combined Transport between Railways and Waterways 

i Denys P. Myers, Manual of Collections of Treaties, p. 499, 504. 
2 International Conciliation, Bulletin No. 176. 

[86] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 87 

and another Subcommittee on Combined Transport be- 
tween Railways and Air Navigation. In addition, there 
is a Committee on Competition between Railways and 
Waterways. All of these are studying the appropriate 
phases of facilitating through traffic, devoting their atten- 
tion first to the unification of contracts for journeys over 
more than one type of transportation. 

Regime of Railways. The convention and statute on the 
international regime of railways * and protocol of signature, 
signed at Geneva December 9, 1923, came into force on 
March 23, 1926. The statute, which constitutes the tech- 
nical agreement, is divided into six parts devoted to the 
interchange of international traffic by rail, reciprocity in 
the use of rolling stock and its technical uniformity, rela- 
tions between the railway and its users, tariffs, financial 
arrangements between railway administrations in the 
interest of international traffic and general regulations. 
The contracting states undertake to provide for a through 
service connecting the existing lines "wherever the needs of 
international traffic so require." In case existing connec- 
tions are not sufficient the reinforcement of existing lines 
or the construction of new lines to effect junctions are to 
be arranged without delay. A system of common frontier 
stations is contemplated and mutual facilities at separate 
frontier stations are provided for. States undertake to 
give reasonable facilities to international traffic and to 
refrain from all discrimination of an unfair nature with 
regard to it. An obligation to improve time-table con- 
nections is recognized, and the states agree to encourage 
the establishment of through trains or through carriages. 
Customs, police and passport formalities shall be adjusted 
so as to create "the least possible hindrance and delay." 

Shipment of baggage through customs under seal is 

1 Treaty Series, XLVII, p. 55. Ratifications: Abyssinia, Austria, Belgium, British 
Empire, Denmark, Germany, India, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, 
Poland and Free City of Danzig, Rumania, Siam, Sweden, Switzerland. Accessions: 
Newfoundland, Southern Rhodesia, British Guiana, British Honduras, Brunei, Fed- 
erated Malay States, Gambia, Gold Coast, Hong-Kong, Malay States (Unfederated) , 
Nigeria, Northern Rhodesia, Nyasaland, Palestine, Sierra Leone, Straits Settlements, 
Tanganyika Territory. Subject to ratification: China, Colombia, Panama. 

[87] 



88 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

encouraged. Railway administrations are urged to enter 
into agreements to facilitate the exchange and reciprocal 
use of rolling stock on roads of the same gauge. With a 
view to facilitating such use, agreements for the technical 
uniformity of rail lines are to be made. (Many of these 
are in force.) Standardization in contiguous countries is 
especially urged. 

Contracting states agree to facilitate agreements per- 
mitting the use of single contracts for international journeys 
over different lines and in different states. Conditions to 
be included in such contracts for both passengers and their 
baggage and for freight are set forth. A set of principles 
is laid down respecting railroad tariffs with a view to secur- 
ing the greatest possible uniformity of rates, incidental 
charges and the conditions under which they shall be 
applied. International traffic tariffs are to be reasonable 
and not to discriminate unfairly against other contracting 
states, their nationals or their vessels; at the same time 
states retain full freedom to frame their tariffs under their 
national legislation. 

The business arrangements between railway adminis- 
trations are not to hamper the working of international 
traffic and the application of through ticket contracts. 
Direct financial relations between railroad administra- 
tions in such matters are provided for in detail. 

General regulations permit deviation from the general 
principles in case of emergencies affecting the safety of the 
state, but only to the extent necessary under the circum- 
stances. Contracting states are not obliged under the 
statute to insure the transport of passengers whose ad- 
mission into its territories is forbidden or of goods against 
which importation restrictions run. Precautionary meas- 
ures against dangerous freights are authorized. Dis- 
crimination under these heads is not permissible, but the 
transit, export or import of articles prohibited by general 
agreement such as opium, arms, etc., is excepted. The 
statute does not entail the withdrawal of facilities greater 
than those provided in it, nor any prohibition of granting 

[88] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 89 

greater facilities in the future. It continues in force in time 
of war so far as belligerent and neutral rights and duties 
permit. 

Electric Questions 

The Permanent Committee on Electric Questions early 
concerned itself with bringing international agreement re- 
specting wireless communication up to date. The 1912 
convention * no longer represented the adequate minimum 
of international agreement, and conferences held in Paris 
and Washington in 1920 had brought no agreement. A 
temporary Committee of Experts on Telegraphic Questions 
began meeting in London in July, 1923, to mature plans 
for "an international conference to deal with the general 
body of international radiotelegraphic problems." 2 By 
1925, preparations were made for a telegraphic conference 
meeting in Paris, September 1, 1925, and a radio telegraphic 
conference, which was convened in Washington in 1927. 

The Permanent Committee has developed machinery for 
constituting an international center of information with a 
view to promoting interstate cooperation with respect to 
the development and the technical aspects of the trans- 
mission in transit of electric power and the development of 
hydraulic power in connection with the conventions deal- 
ing with those subjects. 

The question of improvement of League telegraphic and 
telephonic communications in times of crisis has occupied 
the attention of the Committee since 1926. 3 Examination 
of the existing conditions, preparation of a list of com- 
munication routes, provision for special handling of mes- 
sages directed to the League and other features of the 
problem have been extensively studied. A Committee of 
Experts in 1928 examined the technical aspects of con- 
structing a League wireless station. 4 Switzerland has 

i Treaties, Conventions . . . between the United States and other powers, III, p. 3048. 
2 Official Journal, TV, p. 682. 

* League of Nations, C. C. T. 310. 1927. VIII. 6. 

* Ibid., C. 141. M. 32. 1928. VIII. 4. 

[89] 



90 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

taken an active part in this matter, which is to be the 
subject of a report to the 1929 Assembly. 

Transit of Power. The convention relating to the 
transmission in transit of electric power, 1 signed at Geneva 
December 9, 1923, entered into force from July 26, 1926. 
Each contracting state undertakes, on the request of any 
other contracting state, to negotiate for agreements to in- 
sure the transmission in transit of electric power across 
its territory. If such an agreement should be seriously 
detrimental to the national economy or security, repre- 
sentations to such effect may be made to the applicant 
state. Such agreements may include the general condi- 
tions for the construction and upkeep of power transmis- 
sion lines, equitable remuneration for the state across whose 
territory the transmission takes place, the methods for 
exercising technical control and securing public safety, the 
means to be used for communications in connection with 
the working of the power lines, and the procedure for 
settling disputes in regard to the interpretation and appli- 
cation of the agreements. 

It is recognized that the construction of lines and installa- 
tions ancillary thereto shall be subject to the legal and 
administrative provisions of the state in which they are 
erected. The convention does not oblige any state to 
exercise powers of expropriation. The convention con- 
tinues in force in time of war so far as belligerent and 
neutral rights and duties permit. 

Hydraulic Power. The convention relating to the de- 
velopment of hydraulic power 2 affecting more than one 
state and protocol of signature, signed at Geneva De- 
cember 9, 1923, entered into force from June 30, 1925. 
"Within the limits of international law, this convention does 
not affect the right of each state to carry out on its own 
territory operations for the development of hydraulic 
power which it may consider desirable." However, should 
reasonable development of hydraulic power involve inter- 

i Treaty Series, LVIII, p. 315. 
2 Ibid., XXXVI, p. 75. 

[90 1 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 91 

national investigation, the contracting states agree to a 
joint investigation to arrive at a solution most favorable 
to their interests as a whole and, if possible, to draw up 
an equitable scheme of development. Contracting states 
obligate themselves to enter into negotiations with a view 
to concluding agreements to allow for the development of 
hydraulic power partly on the territory of each of the 
contracting states concerned. If a hydraulic power de- 
velopment might cause serious prejudice to one state, the 
states concerned shall enter into negotiations calculated 
to allow such operations to be executed. 

The agreements contemplated may provide for general 
conditions for the establishment, upkeep and operation of 
works, equitable contributions by the states concerned 
toward expenses, financial arrangements, methods for ex- 
ercising technical control and for insuring security, public 
safety, protection of sites, regulation of the flow of water, 
protection of the interests of third parties and the settling 
of disputes. Works in particular states are subject to their 
laws and regulations applicable to similar works. The 
development of hydraulic power on international water- 
ways is subject to all rights and obligations resulting from 
the general convention establishing their status. The 
convention continues in force in time of war so far as 
belligerent and neutral rights and duties permit. 

Road Traffic 

The Permanent Committee of Inquiry on Road Traffic 
first met in October, 1924, to draft a revision of the con- 
vention signed at Paris on October 11, 1909, with respect 
to international circulation of motor vehicles. 1 A new 
conference attended at Paris by 53 countries April 20-24, 
1926, embodied in a new convention the principal clauses 
of a draft 2 drawn up by the committee. 

The committee has concentrated attention on the uni- 

1 102 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 64. 

2 Early draft in Official Journal, VI, p. 978. 

[91] 



92 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

fication of traffic regulations in the interests of safety. 
Automobile clubs are cooperating with this effort. One 
resolution recommended the general adoption of right- 
hand traffic as the most expedient and feasible solution 
of the problem in European states, this rule having already 
been applied by the majority of those states. The com- 
mittee is examining the question of road signals x and 
many incidental problems connected therewith in the light 
of the rules and habits in force throughout the world. 

Calendar Reform 

The inconveniences of the present calendar are keenly 
felt by economic life as a whole and particularly by trans- 
port. The International Chamber of Commerce in 1921 
and the International Astronomical Union in 1922 advo- 
cated reform. A preliminary investigation showed that the 
reform of the calendar necessarily involved as a first step 
a consultation of the religious authorities interested, in 
order to determine to what extent solutions were possible. 

A Special Committee of Inquiry into the Reform of the 
Calendar was decided upon by the Advisory Committee 
at its fifth session in 1923, consisting largely of experts in 
the fields of religion and astronomy. After studying replies 
to questionnaires sent to Governments, religious com- 
munities and international organizations and hearing those 
interested — primarily representatives of various religions 
— the committee ended its work in 1926 by presenting a 
report of its findings. 

The Seventh Assembly came to the conclusion that the 
next step should be to make this work known in the various 
countries. For this purpose it suggested the formation of 
international organizations to study the questions, to in- 
clude representatives of the principal interests involved. 
None of the religious authorities upon whom the settlement 
of this question depended had formulated objections to the 

i Report of the Permanent Committee on Road Traffic regarding Road Signalling. 
League of Nations, C. 15. M. 8. 1928. VIII. 1. 

[92] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 93 

principle of the fixing of Easter, and no objections had been 
raised in lay circles. 1 

The Report on the Reform of the Calendar 2 is a com- 
prehensive review of opinions collected from Governments 
and other sources. The defects of the Gregorian calendar 
are that the divisions of the year are of unequal length- 
months contain from 28 to 31 days; quarters of the year 
vary from 90 to 92 days; the first half of the year contains 
two or three days less than the second; and there is an un- 
equal number of weeks in the quarters and half years. 
These inequalities cause confusion and uncertainty in 
respect to all statistics, accounts, commercial and transport 
figures. 

The year contains 52 weeks plus one day, or two days in 
leap year. As a result of leap year, the exact reproduction 
of the calendar takes place but once every 28 years. The 
day of the month falls on a different day each year. The 
dates of periodical events vary. The position of weeks and 
quarters overlaps and reckonings are thereby complicated 
while the frequent falling of the first and thirtieth of months 
on Sunday creates difficulties in making fixed payments. 
Perhaps the greatest drawback from a statistical and com- 
mercial point of view is that the variations render similar 
periods incomparable. One month of 30 days may con- 
tain five Sundays and five Saturday half days on which 
no production occurs, whereas another month of 30 days 
will contain but four of each. 

The committee received and examined 185 schemes for 
reforming the calendar, of which 33 were from France 27 
from the United States, 24 from Germany and 14 from 
Switzerland. The committee felt that it could not rec- 
ommend any reform changing the beginning of the year 
from January 1 to December 22, the winter solstice; any 
alteration in the length of the year, or any scheme making 
the months of more irregular length. It felt that a general 
renaming of the months was not of practical utility. 

1 Official Journal, VII, p. 1192. 

2 League of Nations, A. 33. 1926. VIII. 6 and C. 167. M. 49. 1927. VIII. 8. 

[93 I 



94 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

The committee draws the attention of the public to three 

groups. 

The first of these equalizes the quarters of the years. 
Each quarter would consist of two months of 30 days and 
one month of 31 days with an additional day in one quarter. 
Aside from the extra day, each quarter would contain ex- 
actly 13 weeks, and each quarter would be easily compar- 
able within itself. 

The two other groups provide for a blank day. Ihus 
the year would contain exactly 52 weeks for computing 
purposes. One scheme provides for 12 months of 30 and 
31 days; while the other provides for 13 months of 28 
days. Each completely rectifies the variability of the 
existing calendar. They also possess all the advantages of 
equalizing divisions of the year. The advantages and dis- 
advantages of both are set forth. The very logical and 
convenient scheme of 13 months is chiefly objected to be- 
cause 13 is not readily divisible. Governments seem to feel 
that the 12-month system would cause less disturbance to 
established customs, but an increasing number seem to 
favor the 13-month system, particularly those who are 
already using it as an auxiliary calendar. 

No objection was found to the stabilization of Easter. 
The Christian churches saw no objection from the point of 
view of dogma, and all stated that they were willing to 
accept a reform which would serve the good of humanity. 
The business world was distinctly favorable because of the 
influence of a variable Easter on numerous industries. 
Railroad administrations favored it, and school authorities 
were without exception desirous of it. At the present time 
Easter varies between March 22 and April 25. Most 
replies favored the stabilization of Easter on the second 
Sunday in April. The committee was prepared to accept 
this day, with the suggestion that the accurate defimUon 
be "the Sunday following the second Saturday of April. 



94 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 95 



Adjustment of Disputes 

European Commission of the Danube. A dispute be- 
tween France, Great Britain and Italy on the one hand and 
Rumania on the other respecting the jurisdiction of the 
European Commission of the Danube was submitted to the 
Committee for Communications and Transit. The Transit 
Committee appointed a special committee to study the 
question on the spot in the spring of 1925, 1 and it met with 
delegates to the European Commission of the Danube in 
September, 1925, and September, 1926. As a result of 
these discussions, the British, French, Italian and Ru- 
manian delegates to the European Commission signed an 
agreement requesting the Council to ask the Permanent 
Court of International Justice for an Advisory Opinion 
respecting the powers of the European Commission. The 
Court rendered its opinion on December 8, 1927, 2 finding 
that the European Commission "has the same powers on 
the maritime sector of the Danube from Galatz to Braila 
as on the sector below Galatz" and that its powers "ex- 
tend over the whole of the maritime Danube" including 
harbor zones. The opinion was communicated by the 
Council to the Chairman of the Committee on Communi- 
cations and Transit for transmission to the Governments 
concerned. 

Oder River System. The treaties of peace provided for 
revision of the international agreements and regulations 
relating to the Oder River. A dispute developed between 
Great Britain, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Poland, 
Prussia and Sweden respecting the inclusion of navigable 
tributaries of the Oder which are in Polish territory within 
the internationalized waterway system. The British Gov- 
ernment referred this dispute to the Advisory and Technical 
Committee by a note of August 23, 1924, France also 
asking that the committee fix the limits of the international 

1 The committee met at Geneva February 18-19, and March 30-April 2 1925 
and Seri^cX^lS-IV^ 111 ^ 6111 C ° Urt ° f International J ustice - Seri es B, No. *14. 

[95] 



96 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

river system. The committee heard the parties in interest, 
following study of a report by its own commission of in- 
quiry. Calling attention to the fact that its duty was to 
act as a conciliatory agency, the committee on November 
27, 1924, concluded that the jurisdiction of the International 
Oder Commission should extend upstream on the Warthe 
to and above Posen and upstream on the Netze as far as 
Usch, while other sections of the system should be sub- 
ject to the provisions of the Barcelona convention on the 
regime of navigable waterways. 1 

Railroad Systems. Various questions arising from the 
division of railroad systems between states as a result of 
the peace treaties have been referred by the Council to the 
committee and submitted by it to its Subcommittee on 
Transport by Rail. The Arad-Csanad railways case was 
the first of this series, coming before the Council in De- 
cember, 1923, at the request of the Hungarian Govern- 
ment under Art. 304 of the treaty of Trianon. The sub- 
committee, having found that the dispute had not been the 
subject of negotiations between the Hungarian and Ru- 
manian Governments, so reported to the Council, which 
on March 15, 1926, 2 held that it was better not to inter- 
vene until an attempt at direct negotiations had failed. 
Such negotiations were opened in November, and on De- 
cember 6, 1926, the Rumanian representative informed the 
Council "that an amicable settlement had been reached 
regarding railways." 3 The railways then involved in this 
solution were the Arad-Csanad United, the Haskovo- 
Mastanly, the Maramarosi-Tarsasag, the Nagykaroly- 
Matesalka-Casp and Szatmar-Matesalka Railways. 4 

On September 26, 1928, the Council appointed arbi- 
trators following a similar examination by the Committee 
on Communications and Transit to settle the problem of 
the administrative and technical reorganization of the 

i Records of the Sixth Assembly, Plenary Meetings, 1925, p. 255. 

2 Official Journal, VII, p. 504. 

s Ibid., VIII, p. 114. 

* Ibid., VII, p. 1218, 1406, 1415. 

[96] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 97 

Sopron-Koszeg Railway Company, whose lines are situated 
in Austrian and Hungarian territory. At the same time, 
the Council, on the advice of the committee, recommended 
negotiations between the Czechoslovak and Hungarian 
Governments with an effort to reach an agreement respect- 
ing the reorganization of the Boldva Valley Local Railway 
Company. 

Saar Railroads. Freight traffic in Europe is regulated by 
the international convention signed at Bern in 1890. The 
Governing Commission of the Saar wished to apply it to 
the commerce of the territory, and proposed to adhere to 
the convention. The German Government opposed this 
proposal on the ground that shipments between Germany 
and the Saar were subject to internal German transport 
regulations. The Council of the League in September, 
1921, referred the problem to the Advisory and Technical 
Committee for Communications and Transit, which on 
August 31, 1922, remitted the question to an inquiry com- 
mittee according to the conciliatory procedure laid down 
by the Barcelona Conference. This committee consisted 
of four experts appointed by the Advisory and Technical 
Committee, two by Germany and one by the Saar Gov- 
erning Commission. The experts met at Luxemburg and 
on November 24, 1922, unanimously approved a practical 
and technical agreement solving all outstanding difficul- 
ties. This convention entered into force in January, 1923. 1 

The Straits Commission 
By Art. 15 of the convention relating to the Straits signed 
at Lausanne, July 24, 1923, the Straits Commission per- 
forms its functions under the auspices of the League and 
makes an annual report to the Council. 2 The convention 
lays down the detailed rules for what amounts to the neu- 
tralization of the Dardanelles, Sea of Marmora, and Bos- 
porus. In peace and war the commission is intrusted with 

1 Treaty Series, XXVI I, p. 289. 

2 Official Journal, VII, p. 951; VIII, p. 778; IX, p. 879. 

[971 




WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

administration under these rules. 1 It is composed of rep- 
resentatives of Bulgaria, France, Great Britain, Greece, 
Italy, Japan, Rumania and Turkey. The Soviet Union 
reports its naval forces. 2 

The Secretary-General communicates the reports to the 
Members of the Council, states signatory to the conven- 
tion, the Members of the League and any technical or- 
ganization of the League which might be interested in the 
information contained in them. 

3. The Health Organization 
The health activities of the League are due to Art. 23 
(J) of the Covenant which provides that the Members of 
the League "will endeavor to take steps in matters of in- 
ternational concern for the prevention and control of 
disease"; to Art. 24 declaring that all international bu- 
reaus should be under the direction of the League; and to 
Art. 25 by which Members agree to encourage and pro- 
mote the establishment and cooperation of voluntary Red 
Cross organizations "having as purposes the improvement 
of health, the prevention of disease and the mitigation of 
suffering throughout the world." 

The Universal Sanitary Convention signed at Rome, 
December 9, 1907, established the Office international 
d'Hygiene publique, which in June, 1919, voted to come 
under the direction of the League. The British Ministry of 
Health convened a conference at the request of the Council 
on April 13, 1920, to draft an organization for the health 
activities of the League. This conference provided that 
the Paris office should be maintained and that its delegates 
should be members of the League's General Committee. 
The Office international d'Hygiene publique by a decision 
of April 25, 1921, found itself unable to appoint representa- 
tives to sit on the proposed committee, on the ground that 
the United States, which was a member of the Office inter- 

i Treaty Series, XXVIII, p. 115. 
2 Official Journal, VIII, p. 318, 630. 

[98] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 99 

national, was not willing that it should in any way be 
attached to the League. 

The Assembly on December 10, 1920, had approved 
setting up an organization, and on June 22, 1921, the 
Council established the Provisional Health Committee. 
Later the scheme of the Permanent Health Organization 
was worked out and approved by the Council on July 7, 
1923, 1 and by the Fourth Assembly. 

Composition of Organization 
The Health Organization consists of 

1. The General Advisory Health Council, which is the 
Committee of the Office international d'Hygiene publique; 

2. The Standing Health Committee, 24 members, of 
which nine are appointed by the Committee of the Office 
international, six elected by the Council of the League and 
the rest experts and assessors elected by the Council. The 
third term of three years begins in 1929. The Health 
Committee meets in April and October. 

3. The Health Section of the Secretariat. 

General Functions. The Health Organization deals only 
with questions of international character. To an increas- 
ing extent it serves as the avenue of communication be- 
tween the public health services of states. Its collection 
of information is not only exclusively international but is 
confined to questions in which several states have an in- 
terest. The specific fields with which it is concerned vary 
from year to year, but its activities may be said always to 
supplement efforts of national public health services either 
to secure information or to contribute to their efficient ad- 
ministration. It affords a means of cooperation in the 
domains both of scientific investigation and administration. 
Ine content of international conventions, so far as they re- 
late to sanitary measures, naturally falls within its field 
of interest. The Health Section is generally recognized as 
the suitable mediatory body for the solution of differences 
on such matters. 

1 Official Journal, IV, p. 1051. 

r 99 1 



100 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

j The numerous commissions appointed to handle specific 
problems are uniformly composed of some members of the 
Health Committee and a group of experts. For example, 
much specialized work has been done and the results pub- 
lished in the following fields. The Smallpox and Vaccina- 
tion Commission is making inquiries and researches into 
the preparation, use and after effects of lymph. Attention 
has been given to problems connected with the quarantine 
disinfection of ships. An opium commission handles the 
medical phases of that problem in conjunction with the 
League Advisory Committee. There has been a Sub- 
committee on Anthrax. In the field of vital statistics, a 
committee to define "still-birth" made a report in 1925, 
which has been generally accepted. A committee on the 
nomenclature of causes of death is at work revising the 
international list which is in general use among census 
authorities. Another Committee on a Standard Million 
Population is trying to determine the fundamentals of 
that statistical unit. A Commission on Tuberculosis Mor- 
tality is pursuing its investigations. 

The Assembly frequently proposes new phases of work 
for investigation. 

The activities of the committee are valuable chiefly from 
a technical point of view, which can only be adequately 
appreciated by a study of its extensive publications. 

Since 1925 an annual edition of The International Health 
Year-Book has been issued. A series of monographs on the 
Organisation of Public Health Services and a handbook series 
on Official Vital Statistics are being issued. 

Fight Against Epidemics 
In 1920, serious epidemic conditions existed in Eastern 
Europe. Millions of refugees were huddled together under 
unsanitary conditions and various typhus and relapsing 
fever epidemics, originating in Russia, were devastating 
them. In the previous year, 1919, a commission of the 
League of Red Cross Societies had found that the situa- 

f 100 1 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 101 

tion was beyond the means and resources of the local 
administrations and of private voluntary organizations. 
Accordingly, the Council on March 13, 1920, requested the 
London Health Conference to draw up a program to cope 
with the situation. The Epidemic Commission of the 
League was authorized by the Council on May 19, 1920, 
and immediately set to work. 

Voluntary contributions of states Members of the League 
made it possible to promote international cooperation in 
these extraordinary circumstances. Medical measures were 
left to the local authorities, but the cooperative campaign 
was planned through the League Epidemic Commission, 
whose work was the more valuable because most of the 
Russian border states were newly organized and their own 
administrations not fully developed. Up to August 1, 
1921, the commission had spent about $1,000,000 in co- 
ordinating the battle against the epidemic scourges, and 
over 3,000,000 persons had been vaccinated in Greece alone 
The direction of this work fell to the Provisional Health 
Committee after its organization. The Warsaw Confer- 
ence m 1922 did much to organize the permanent defenses 
of Europe against epidemics. 

The European Health Conference held at Warsaw, in 
March, 1922, summoned by the Polish Government on the 
invitation of the Council, was the first all-European con- 
ference since the close of the World War and the first co- 
ordinated effort on the part of governmental and public 
authorities to fight epidemics in Europe. It was attended 
by representatives of 27 governments. A series of resolu- 
tions l laid down a comprehensive plan of campaign to 
strengthen the sanitary defenses of states bordering on 
Russia, where a typhus epidemic raged. It provided for 
the organization of sanitary training courses in Warsaw 
Moscow and Krakow and laid down the general lines for a 
series of sanitary conventions. 

These conventions were made to provide for the 
mutual notification of cases of cholera, plague, relapsing 

p. I*™* 6 ™ Healih C f^^k * W arsa w V. from March 20th-28th, 1922, 

[101] 



102 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

fever or typhus. Precautionary measures to prevent the 
spread of these epidemic diseases are to be notified to other 
states and all possible assistance in making them effec- 
tive is to be given. Medical inspection, disinfection, the 
segregation of infected persons and other similar measures 
are to be taken by the authorities within areas defined as 
centers of infection . Adequate inspection and examination , 
as well as prophylactic methods, are to be exercised on the 
land and maritime frontiers with a view to preventing the 
spread of epidemic diseases, and the authorities of ad- 
jacent countries undertake to assist each other in these 
respects. Special regimes may be established in frontier 
zones extending five kilometers each side of the boundary 
line in case of need, while frontier medical observation 
posts may be established and are entitled to assistance from 
similar posts of the other country. One feature of the 
conventions is a clause providing that all disputes regarding 
their interpretation or application shall be submitted to the 
mediation of the Health Section of the League. 1 

Epidemiological Intelligence. The need for a service of 
epidemiological intelligence was emphasized ^ by the ex- 
periences of the Epidemic Commission. The impossibility 
of public health services waging an effective campaign 
against epidemics without facts as to their incidence and 
scope made the collection and distribution of such informa- 
tion the first task of the Provisional Health Committee. 
Many technical problems had to be overcome, such as lack 
of uniformity in the methods of gathering such information. 
The Epidemic Commission had made investigations and 
published several reports. 

i Conventions of this type have been made between Poland and Rumania. Warsaw, 
December 20, 1922 (League of Nations, Treaty Series, XVIII, p. 104); Germany and 
Poland, Dresden, December 18, 1922 (Ibid., XXXIV, p. 302); Latvia and Poland, 
Warsaw July 7, 1922 (Ibid., XXXVII, p. 318); Latvia and the Russian Soviet Re- 
publics and the Soviet Republics of the Ukraine and White Russia, Tartu June 24, 
1922 (Ibid XXXVIII, p. 35); Estonia and Latvia, Tartu, June 24, 1922 (Ibid., 
XXXVIII p 81); Poland and the Russian Soviet Republics and the Soviet Republics 
of the Ukraine and White Russia, Warsaw, February 17, 1923; Czechoslovakia and 
Poland Warsaw, 1922; Estonia and the Russian Soviet Republics and the Soviet Re- 
publics' of the Ukraine and White Russia, Tartu, June 25, 1922; Bulgaria and the 
Serb-Croat-Slovene State. ApriC l y 2'd. • c 7 r - 

f 102] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 103 

An appropriation of an annual grant of $32,840 from the 
International Health Board of the Rockefeller Foundation 
enabled the Committee in July, 1923, to issue the Monthly 
Epidemiological Report. The report has become more and 
more valuable to public health services throughout the 
world and has steadily increased in accuracy. Back of this 
development has lain extensive scientific and technical 
investigations, resulting in radical changes in the methods 
of handling public health statistics. 

The great plagues which afflict mankind and decimate 
populations originate in the Far East, and are spread 
throughout the world. In November, 1922, the League's 
epidemic commissioner went on a mission to the Far East 
to acquaint himself with this situation. As a result, a 
bureau in the Far East to receive and distribute epidemio- 
logical information was suggested. The proposal was ap- 
proved by the Health Committee, by the Council in 1924, 
and by an international conference of 12 Far Eastern health 
administrations at Singapore, February 4-13, 1925. Mean- 
time, the Rockefeller Foundation had offered to grant a 
subvention of $125,000 for a period of five years for the 
establishment of such a bureau. 

The Eastern Bureau. The Eastern Bureau of the 
Health Organization at Singapore started work on March 1, 
1925. It began by distributing telegraphic information from 
35 ports in the 12 countries represented in the February 
conference. The development of the Bureau's weekly 
report was steady. In 1928, it received telegraphic infor- 
mation from 140 ports, to which it is only possible to add 
more Chinese ports in order to cover the whole of the Far 
East. Information thus gathered is broadcast in a code 
message every Friday from the wireless stations at Saigon, 
Indo-China, Bandoeng, Dutch East Indies, and by tele- 
graph from Geneva to 124 public health administrations 
throughout the world. The code message is supplemented 
weekly by more detailed and additional reports by mail. 
The substance of these reports increases in value as a 
wider range of information becomes available through 



103 



104 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

steady improvement in the system of reporting and trans- 
mission. 

The Eastern Bureau is intrusted with the duties of col- 
lecting and distributing epidemic information by the Paris 
sanitary convention of 1926, which supersedes that of 1907. 
As a consequence of its provisions, agreements were entered 
into in 1927 between the Health Committee and the 
Permanent Committee of the Paris office. These were 
approved by the Council on June 13, 1928. 1 

The Eastern Bureau is controlled by an Advisory Council 
consisting of delegates representing health administrations 
of the Far East. While its budget originally came entirely 
from the Rockefeller grant, health administrations are con- 
tributing to it, and eventually it will be supported by 
Government contributions. 

The Epidemiological and Public Health Intelligence 
Services of the League are subject to constant improve- 
ment as the result of experience. In October, 1927, a Con- 
ference of Experts examined the form of presentation of the 
epidemiological publications and the conditions attending 
their preparation with a view to securing the greatest pos- 
sible degree of uniformity and speed. 

In November, 1926, an epidemic of influenza broke out 
in Europe and spread over a wide area. A special bulletin 
and a service of wireless broadcasts was begun to inform 
public health administrations of current conditions. A 
total of 30 countries contributed information, which mate- 
rially aided in circumscribing the epidemic. All health 
services concerned contributed to a general report, which is 
probably the first instance of a complete, authentic rec- 
ord of the outbreak and subsidence of an epidemic. In 
1928 aid was given to the Balkan states following serious 
earthquakes. 

Interchanges of Public Health Officials 
The duty of the Health Organization to promote coopera- 
tion in the field of public health directed attention at the 

i Text, Official Journal, VIII, p. 809. 
r 104 1 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 105 

outset to the desirability of bringing administrative health 
officials in different countries into closer touch with each 
other. Thanks to a yearly grant since 1922 from the 
International Health Board of the Rockefeller Foundation, 
varying between $50,000 and $75,000 annually, a great 
number of public health officials have visited other coun- 
tries to study general or special phases of their work. 
What are known as collective interchanges, in which public 
health officers examine the operation of national adminis- 
trations on a study tour, were most numerous in the first 
few years. As the work of the committee progressed, 
special interchanges of specially selected experts or even 
individual missions have occurred. 

The collective interchanges began in October, 1922. 
They close with a conference and series of lectures at 
Geneva. During 1927 these interchanges were altered so 
as to become less of a study tour and were developed into 
international courses of advanced training in public health 
and hygiene. From 1922 through 1928 a total of 31 in- 
terchanges was held. Such interchanges were held in all 
parts of the world. From 1922-24, 176 persons of 126 
nationalities participated. 

In 1926 individual medical missions were inaugurated. 
These may be for the purpose of either scientific or labora- 
tory research. A Japanese physician was enabled to com- 
plete a study of vitamines in Europe. An English profes- 
sor made a special study and reported to the Health 
Organization on The Food of Japan. 

While the interchanges are confined to persons who have 
already established themselves in their professions, the 
Health Organization has also provided scholarships for the 
study of special diseases. This is notably true in con- 
nection with the Malaria Commission, which has embarked 
on a program for training malariologists. 

Training Courses. The Health Committee on January 
11, 1923, asked the Medical Director to collect information 
from the universities of America, Europe and Japan re- 
garding the study of medical and social hygiene. On 

[105] 



106 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

February 20, 1924, the committee appointed a commis- 
sion to examine the information collected, to continue the 
inquiry and to make recommendations as to the courses of 
study which in its opinion are most likely to yield the 
highest value in public education both from the scientific 
and practical points of view. The commission worked out 
a very complete schedule to this end, 1 with special reference 
to instruction courses. This Commission on Education in 
Hygiene and Preventive Medicine began in 1927 to hold 
sessions taking the form of conferences between the di- 
rectors of schools of public health. A program for their 
cooperative realization is being carried out. 

Relations with Special Areas 

The Health Committee has responded to invitations to 
examine conditions or perform special work in various parts 
of the world. Most of these activities have been for a 
special purpose in connection with some phase of the com- 
mittee's activities. Three areas, however, are receiving 
continuous attention, in addition to the contacts afforded 
by the interchanges of officials. 

The special investigations of the Health Organization 
are of particular benefit to Latin America where both 
problems and conditions peculiar to the territory exist. 

Latin America. The first League conference on Latin 
American soil was a Conference of South American Experts 
on Child Welfare 2 at Montevideo, Uruguay, June 7-11, 
1927. Inquiry into infantile mortality is a great and 
urgent problem in South America, where underpopulation 
is a problem and infant mortality rates are comparatively 
high. The conference decided on a preliminary inquiry in 
Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, which was followed by a 
detailed study ending in 1929. An international school for 
infant and child hygiene at Buenos Aires under the 
auspices of the League is proposed. The establishment of 

i Health Committee. Minutes of the Third Session, p. 49 54. 
2 League of Nations, A. 49. 1927. III. 8. 

f 106] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 107 

an international school of public health under the auspices 
of the League at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was approved by the 
Health Committee in 1927. Programs of study on leprosy, 
the diagnosis and treatment of syphilis and the coordination 
of laboratory work are under way in South America. 

Pacific Problems. An International Pacific Health 
Conference was held at Melbourne from December 15-22, 
1926. In accordance with its invitation a preliminary 
survey has been made of health conditions in Papua, New 
Guinea, the New Hebrides, New Caledonia, the Solomon 
Islands and Fiji. fcjjj 

Much valuable and original information is contained in 
the records of the Japanese Health Service which have 
been practically a sealed book to western medical science. 
The Japanese health and medical authorities formed a 
commission to strengthen the contacts between the Health 
Organization and applied medical science in the Far East. 
Monographs, based on recent original Japanese research 
work on public health problems of international importance, 
are being published by the Health Committee through its 
help. 

Standardizing Sera 

The provisional Health Organization has conducted a 
technical reform of far-reaching importance through the 
Commission on Standardization of Sera, Serological Re- 
actions and Biological Products. The international char- 
acter of medical science forced the nations to an agreement 
on the unification of the formulas of potent drugs, which 
was signed at Brussels November 29, 1906. In the period 
since then serum has come to be widely used as a means of 
treatment, but sera are made by different processes in dif- 
ferent countries, and variations in strength have created 
great difficulties. 

The Health Committee convened a conference of dele- 
gates of medical institutes at London in 1921 to discuss 
the problem. They agreed upon a scheme of coordinated 
investigation, designating the Danish State Institute of 
Serotherapy at Copenhagen as the laboratory to centralize 

1107 1 



108 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

their results. A conference in Geneva in September, 1922, 
a more general one at the Pasteur Institute in Paris in 
November, 1922, a conference at Edinburgh in July, 1923, 
and a technical laboratory conference at Copenhagen in 
November, 1923, produced the first results and determined 
the methods followed. These may be described as the 
conduct of extensive laboratory tests of a given substance, 
followed by a conference of technicians to agree upon the 
conclusions produced. 

Once a standard is agreed upon, the preservation of it is 
intrusted to a specific serological or biological institute. 
The units fixed by the commission are known as League of 
Nations units and were recommended as standard for the 
world by the Second International Conference for the 
Unification of the Formulae of Powerful Drugs at Brussels, 
September 21, 1925. 

Anti-diphtheritic serum has been determined as the 
Ehrlich standard, 10,000 antitoxin units as a therapeutic 
dose and 1,000 units as a preventive dose. The anti- 
dysentery serum was standardized by utilization of the 
Shiga bacillus. Experiments with respect to standardizing 
tuberculin have been under way for three years, and in- 
vestigations respecting anti-meningococcus, anti-pneumo- 
coccus, and anti-streptococcus are being held. 

In the field of the biological standardization of drugs, the 
efficacy and toxicity are determined. For medical practice, 
it is also important to determine the strength at which they 
should be administered. Standards have been fixed for 
pituitary extract, insulin, digitalis, arcenobenzols and 
thyroid gland extract. Ergot, cod liver oil and vitamines, 
parathyroid extract and ovarian extract are in process of 
standardization. 

Extensive tests as to the reagents in the serological diag- 
nosis of syphilis resulted in a special conference in May, 
1928. 

Rabies. The first International Rabies Conference was 
attended at the Pasteur Institute in Paris in April, 1927, 
by representatives from anti-rabies institutes in 27 coun- 

[108] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 109 

tries. This conference was organized by the Health Com- 
mittee in view of the general interest in the treatment of 
hydrophobia and numerous requests made by directors of 
anti-rabies institutes. 

Four committees were concerned with the nature of 
the rabies virus; the methods of inoculating persons after 
they have been bitten; various modifications of the Pasteur 
treatment; general and local accidents consequent on anti- 
rabies inoculations; post-vaccinal paralysis; the problem 
of inoculating domestic animals which have been bitten and 
the preventive inoculation of dogs; the necessity for pre- 
paring upon a uniform basis statistics concerning the re- 
sults obtained from anti-rabies treatment; legislation in 
force in the various countries. 

The conference 1 adopted the resolutions and recom- 
mendations of its committees and decided upon inquiries 
concerning the technique of human vaccination, different 
kinds of vaccine, plurality of strains of street and fixed 
virus, the rabicidal action of the serum of man and animals 
during and after immunization, etc. It requested the 
Health Organization to organize these investigations and 
arrange to collect and distribute information relating to 
rabies. 

Malaria Commission 
The Provisional Health Committee appointed a malaria 
subcommittee in January, 1923, which became the Malaria 
Commission in 1924. Malaria is endemic in districts in- 
habited by 650,000,000 people, a third of the world's popu- 
lation. By a series of study tours in Bulgaria, Greece, 
Italy, Rumania, Russia, Serbia, Albania, Macedonia and 
the Ukraine, and investigations in Corsica and Sicily and 
the Mediterranean basin generally the commission was 
able to prepare a general report 2 of great value in 1927. 
The report emphasizes the commission's view that no one 
method of malaria suppression can be considered best, and 

1 R eports . . . to the International Rabies Conference . . . (C. H, 531 (1). 1927. HI. 

m^lU^ aUd Meth0ds ° f Antimalar ^ Measures in Europe (C H. Malaria. 73. 

[ 109 ] 



110 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

that each district must be carefully studied before deciding 
what methods are the most likely to yield good results. 

Visits have been paid to the deltas of the Mississippi, 
Danube, Ebro and Po to determine the connection of rivers 
with the disease. Investigations also have extended to 
such subjects as the influence of rice fields in Europe, the 
r61e of animals, the results of drainage measures, of meas- 
ures directed against adult mosquitoes and against larvae, 
conditions under which mosquitoes become infected, the 
value of the secondary alkaloids of cinchona as a substitute 
for quinine, etc. 

All this work was reviewed at the session of the commis- 
sion at Geneva in June, 1928, when the report was dis- 
cussed with the corresponding members and experts of the 
commission, a representative of the United States Public 
Health Service and six experts of the Rockefeller Founda- 
tion. The conclusions of the report were analyzed and a 
future program adopted. 

Courses of study for training malariologists, organized 
by the Malaria Commission in selected institutes in London, 
Rome, Paris and Hamburg, followed by practical work and 
observation in malarial areas in Corsica, Italy, Serb-Croat- 
Slovene State and Spain, were given in 1926 and are re- 
peated annually. Fourteen scholarships are awarded for 
these courses by the Health Organization in addition to 
those provided by the Rockefeller Foundation. 

Infant Mortality 

The Netherlands Government proposed to the Sixth 
Assembly an inquiry into infant mortality. The Com- 
mittee of Health Experts on Infant Welfare laid down their 
program of work in 1926. By 1928 they had concluded an 
inquiry in 29 districts, both urban and rural, of seven 
European countries where infant mortality was respectively 
high and low but in which such factors as the birth rate 
were relatively comparable. A full report has been pre- 
pared. 

[ 110] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 111 

The committee continues to collect information as to 
immunization against measles, scarlet fever and diphtheria 
and is preparing to study rickets. Special attention is 
being given to Latin America, which the committee visited 
in 1927. 

Cancer 

A subcommittee of the Provisional Health Committee 
was appointed on this subject on June 5, 1923. It was re- 
constituted as the Cancer Commission by the Standing 
Health Committee, February 20, 1924, with the addition 
of experts and consultants. A first report made in 1926 
dealt with (1) the reality of differences in frequency of 
cancer of the breast and the uterus in different countries; 
(2) the negative results of investigations as to the possible 
relation between cancer mortality and race in certain 
European countries; (3) the value to be attached to sta- 
tistics concerning cancer mortality and the interpretation 
of such statistics; (4) the results of various national in- 
quiries and statistical data collected and collated by the 
Secretariat; (5) a memorandum on the best methods of 
securing sufficient publicity for the information already 
collected. The commission continues on a program em- 
phasizing the study of occupational cancer and certain 
aspects of the radiological treatment of cancer. 

Health Insurance 
A preliminary survey 1 on the relation of health insurance 
to public health services brought out in 1927 that a great 
many health insurance organizations are engaged in one 
form or another of preventive medicine, health education 
or public hygiene, but often with little or no correlation 
with that of other public health agencies. The introduc- 
tion of a well-considered system would allow of better 
utilization of all available facilities. The Health Commit- 
tee decided to appoint a commission of experts, which 

1 Health Committee. Ninth Session, p. 71 (C. 107. M. 33. 1927. III. 4). 
[Ill] 



112 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

confined its work in 1928 to the examination of two ques- 
tions, the prevention of tuberculosis and the protection of 
maternity, infancy and the child of preschool age. 

Tropical Diseases 
The problem of combating diseases peculiar to^ the 
tropics was brought to the attention of the Provisional 
Health Committee by the Mandates Commission, which 
had learned from the reports of the mandatory states some- 
thing of the scope of the problem. The question of sleep- 
ing sickness had in fact been approached before the World 
War and there had been held in London in June, 1907, an 
international conference on that subject. The Health 
Committee appointed four experts on May 15, 1922, to 
report upon sleeping sickness and tuberculosis in equatorial 
Africa. On February 21, 1924, the committee named 
three of its own members to guide the work of the experts 
with respect to health conditions in mandated territories. 
The preliminary report recommending administrative and 
technical aid to combat the scourge was studied by an in- 
ternational conference at London in May 19-22, 1925, 
when a new program of investigation was decided upon. A 
second conference upon the commission's final report will 
be held in 1929. A permanent committee to receive and 
discuss annual reports on the program of research work 
exists. Several conferences of African officials have been 
held. 

4. Intellectual Cooperation 

The First Assembly, on December 18, 1920, approved 
the assistance which the Council had given to the develop- 
ment of international cooperation in intellectual activity 
and particularly support extended to the Union of Inter- 
national Associations. On September 21, 1921, the Second 
Assembly adopted a resolution, proposed by Leon Bourgeois 
in the name of the Council, to the effect that the Council 
should nominate a committee to examine international 
questions regarding intellectual cooperation. 

[112] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 113 

Committee. The committee was not to exceed 12 
members. On January 14, 1922, the Council decided 
to appoint this committee. 

Henri Bergson, the French philosopher, was chairman of 
the committee until his resignation on August 12, 1925. 
He was succeeded by Professor H. A. Lorentz, the Dutch 
physicist, until his death on February 4, 1928. Professor 
Gilbert A. Murray, the Oxford Greek scholar, was elected 
chairman on July 25, 1928, and at the same time Mme. 
Curie, the famous scientist was made Vice-President. 
Professor Robert Andrews Millikan, director of the Norman 
Bridge Laboratory of Physics at the Technological In- 
stitute of California, has been the American member from 
the beginning. Albrecht Einstein, the German physicist, 
resigned at one time and later resumed his membership. 
Several other changes in membership have occurred. In 
July, 1925, the committee appointed three corresponding 
members. The committee, as a result of changes, had 
increased in 1928 to 15 members, including a Japanese. 

In 1922, when the committee was first constituted, its 
members were appointed for an indefinite period. As the 
Council felt that the committee should be regarded as a 
permanent organ of the League, it decided that the term of 
office of its members should be for five years (from June 9, 
1926) and should be subject to renewal. 1 

Development. The committee started its activities with 
a general inquiry for the purpose of ascertaining the extent 
of the evils from which intellectual activity and intellectual 
workers in different professions were suffering, and collect- 
ing suggestions for possible remedies. It was deeply 
impressed with the hard conditions confronted by in- 
tellectual workers in certain countries. A definite appeal 
bespeaking assistance for the Austrians was addressed on 
November 4, 1922, to the learned institutions and societies 
of all countries, and resulted in a generous response. Sub- 
sequently a similar appeal was made on behalf of the Hun- 
garians. At the beginning of 1923, Albania, Austria, 

1 Official Journal, VII, p. 949. 

[113 1 



114 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, 
Poland, Rumania and the Serb-Croat-Slovene State were 
availing themselves of the avenue afforded by the com- 
mittee to maintain touch with their fellow workers through- 
out the world. 

At the outset the committee directed an inquiry into the 
conditions of intellectual work, the monographs of which 
have been published. Some of these relate to general 
questions, but the more extensive series is devoted to 
intellectual life in specific countries. 

The committee secured a large number of books for the 
University of Tokio, which was destroyed by earthquake in 
1923. 

While these postwar problems were being met, the com- 
mittee was developing a program for permanent work. At 
its first session it appointed three subcommittees on bibliog- 
raphy, university relations and intellectual property and 
in 1925 one on arts and letters. To these committees 
there came without delay a wide variety of problems. As 
part of the organization, it was decided to encourage 
the formation of national committees in the different 
countries. In 1924, France proposed to establish an 
International Institute at Paris, and it has functioned since 
1926 as a special organ of the committee with its own staff. 
Both the Committee and the Institute have been under the 
necessity of calling upon numerous committees of specialists, 
since almost every question which has arisen has required 
special technical investigation. There is also a tendency 
to establish specialized offices in connection with the In- 
stitute which, in addition to its own program, aims to be 
hospitable to all efforts at intellectual cooperation. The 
International Committee itself is served by a section of 
the Secretariat. The Institute, while autonomous, is con- 
trolled by the committee sitting as its Governing Body. 
The detailed work of the Institute is under the authority 
of a committee of Directors, and it has attached to it 
national delegates appointed by Governments. The com- 
plications of the organization which have thus grown up 

[ 114] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 115 

led the committee at its 10th session to decide to review- 
both its program and mechanism. " The organization," 
said the rapporteur of the committee to the Council, " must 
be informed by a single guiding spirit which will insure 
the smooth working of all its parts." 

National Committees were felt to be necessary to act as 
intermediaries between the organizations of the respective 
countries and the League committee, and to assist in in- 
quiries on the conditions of intellectual life undertaken by 
it by transmitting either directly or to other national com- 
mittees both information and requests. The national 
committees determine their relations with their Govern- 
ments, and their rules of procedure and composition. The 
first of these national committees came into being as organs 
for rendering assistance to intellectual confreres in the 
countries most adversely affected by the World War. 
They have now transferred their activities to distinctly 
intellectual matters. Committees have been organized 
in the following countries: Australia, Austria, Belgium, 
Bolivia, Brazil, British Empire, Bulgaria, Chile, Cuba, 
Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Ger- 
many, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, 
Luxemburg, Netherlands, Norway, Panama, Poland, 
Portugal, Rumania, Salvador, Serb-Croat-Slovene State, 
South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United 
States. 

The Eighth Assembly invited "states Members of the 
League which have not already done so to consider the 
possibility of providing the necessary funds to meet the 
expenses of their respective National Committees." At 
its 10th session the committee decided to summon in 1929 
a meeting of representatives of the national committees 
to establish closer relations with one another, to exchange 
information as to their organization and methods of work, 
to make known their views on the work of the international 
committee and to suggest questions which the latter might 
usefully study. 



1115] 



116 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 



International Institute 

The French minister of education, on July 24, 1924, 
offered the committee a building and an annual fund for 
the establishment of an International Institute of Intel- 
lectual Cooperation. 1 The Council accepted this offer in 
principle on September 9. A lively debate occurred in the 
Second Committee of the Fifth Assembly respecting this 
proposal. The Assembly laid down principles to control 
its acceptance and on December 8, 1924, the French 
Government embodied these in a formal tender to the Coun- 
cil, appending an organic statute of the proposed institute. 
This was accepted by the Council as an agreement 2 on 
December 13, 1924. 

The International Institute was inaugurated on January 
16, 1926, with offices in the Palais Royal, 2 rue de Mont- 
pensier, Paris. It is under the detailed control of a Com- 
mittee of Directors consisting of five persons of different 
nationalities 3 and the chairman of the Governing Body. 

The Governing Body of the Institute is constituted by 
the Committee on Intellectual Cooperation and presided 
over by a French member of the committee. The Govern- 
ing Body draws up the budget and determines the program 
of work; it appoints the directorate, the director and the 
heads of sections and branches. 

The Institute is headed by a French director and an 
English assistant director. 

The French Government provides toward its support a 
sum of 2,100,000 French francs annually, 4 including the 
cost of the necessary premises which are placed at its 
disposal by the French Government. The Institute as a 
legal person may accept donations, legacies, and subsidies 
from governments, institutions, organizations or private 

i Official Journal, V, p. 1522. 
2 Ibid, VI, p. 157. 

s Vernon L. Kellogg, of the National Research Council, is the American member. 
C Vibbert replaced him in one session. 

* Increased in 1928 to 2,600,000 French francs. 

[116] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 117 

persons. The French Government undertakes to maintain 
its part of the agreement for a period of seven years. 1 
The budget for 1929 amounts to 2,896,000 French francs, to 
which, besides France, Austria, Belgium, Egypt, Ecuador, 
Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, Monaco, Poland, Portugal, 
Switzerland and Czechoslovakia have contributed subsidies. 

" The principal object of this institute shall be to prepare 
the work to be discussed by the Committee on Intellectual 
Cooperation, to assure in all countries the carrying out of 
the decisions and recommendations of that committee, 
and, under the direction of the committee and by every 
means in its power, to promote, through international 
cooperation, the organization of intellectual work through- 
out the world" (Art. 2). 

The work of the Institute is divided among sections 
corresponding to the subcommittees of the Committee, of 
which they are the executing organs. The sections deal 
with University Relations, Artistic Relations, Literary 
Relations, Scientific Relations, a Section of Information 
and Reference and a Legal Service. A full analytical re- 
port is under preparation to enable the activities to be 
coordinated and concentrated. 

National Delegates. National delegates accredited to 
the Institute have been named to cooperate with it by the 
following states: Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, 
Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Czecho- 
slovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, 
Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, 
Haiti, Hungary, Irish Free State, Italy, Luxemburg, 
Mexico, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, 
Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Salvador, Sweden, Switzer- 
land, Uruguay, Venezuela. 

University Relations 

The Subcommittee on University Relations was ap- 
pointed on August 4, 1922. 

The International University Information Office was 

1 Official Journal, VI, p. 285. 

[117] 



118 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

established at Geneva in January, 1924, under the direc- 
tion of a governing body of which the director of the 
American University Union in Europe was a member. In 
1924 and 1925 the office published a periodical Bulletin 
dealing with all phases of university relations, and paying 
special attention to information concerning the interna- 
tional recognition of degrees and diplomas, comparative 
study of curricula, announcements of courses on inter- 
national relations in all phases, the interchange of stu- 
dents, and the extension of the interchange of professors. 
This has been continued by the Institute as the Bulletin 
for University Relations. 

On April 6, 1925, the governing body arranged for 
carrying out Dr. C. T. Hagberg Wright's plan for the 
establishment of the list of the best works published in 
various countries, which was approved by the committee 
in July, 1924. Such lists of Notable Books have been com- 
piled by the national committees and published by the 
Institute for 1924 and following years. 

University Problems. The directors of National Uni- 
versity Offices have met annually since 1926 on the invita- 
tion of the Institute. These offices are being organized 
in all countries to deal with the relations between their 
own and foreign universities. The International Institute 
of Education and the American University Union act for 
the institutions of the United States. At the third meeting 
in April, 1928, the delegates studied questions concerning 
the movements of professors and students between the 
different countries; the obstacles (difference of language, 
cost of living, depreciated currency) to the international 
exchange of professors and students; the equivalence of 
university degrees ; special courses for foreigners ; measures 
to facilitate student travel and to enable them to benefit 
as far as possible by these travels. 

It is proposed that international agreements should be 
concluded for the encouragement and systematic prepara- 
tion of exchanges of teachers, for which the national com- 
mittees on intellectual cooperation can usefully act as liaison 

[ 118] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 119 

offices, especially for the organization of longer teaching 
courses. 

Coordination of Studies. A meeting of Experts on 
Coordination of International University Studies met at 
Berlin March 22-24, 1928. Walter W. McLaren, secre- 
tary of the Institute of Politics at Williams College, Wil- 
liamstown, Mass., participated. The experts submitted 
reports on the work of the institutes they represented and 
passed resolutions for coordinating their work. A general 
program to this end will be drawn up at a later meeting. 

University Exchanges. On March 7, 1928, the Council 
authorized the Committee on Intellectual Cooperation to 
accept the offer of the American Council on Education to 
contribute $5,000 for an inquiry in Europe with regard to 
the organizations dealing with exchanges of professors and 
students between different countries. The resulting hand- 
book, University Exchanges in Europe, is due to go into a 
second edition with the aid of a new grant of $4,000. 

Scholarships. In 1928 the subcommittee and plenary 
committee recommended that a special committee of ex- 
perts should be instructed to study the problem of national 
and international postgraduate scholarships as to its ap- 
plication not only to scientific laboratories but also to in- 
stitutes for the study of humanities and sociology. 

A compilation entitled Holiday Courses in Europe is 
published annually since 1928. 

Students' Organizations. The Committee of Repre- 
sentatives of International Students' Organizations has held 
annual sessions at Geneva since 1926. The organizations 
represented were: the International University Federation 
for the League of Nations, the World Union of Jewish 
Students, the International Federation of University 
Women, the International Student Service, the World 
Student Christian Federation, "Pax Romana," the Inter- 
national Students' Confederation and the Auslandsamt der 
deutschen Studentschaft (in an advisory capacity). 

At its second session the committee decided that a 
central international office should be set up in connection 

[ H9 ] 



120 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

with the International Institute, with one delegate from 
each of the international students' organizations. An in- 
ternational students' identity card has been prepared. 
Among the questions discussed at the third session were 
unemployment in connection with brain workers, inter- 
national student statistics, a scheme for an international 
university yearbook, a study of methods of self-help and 
mutual aid and the cooperative organization of students, 
the coordination of the dates of international students' 
conferences, the encouragement of foreign studies, and the 
most suitable means of making known the traveling facil- 
ities for students already granted by Governments and 
traveling agencies. 

Science and Bibliography 

The Subcommittee on Bibliography was appointed on 
August 2, 1922. Professor Jacob R. Schramm of the 
National Research Council is the American member. 
The subcommittee assumed supervision over the work of 
the Scientific Relations Section of the Institute in 1926, 
resulting in its adopting the title of the Subcommittee on 
Science and Bibliography. 

It has issued a first edition of an Index Bibliographicus, 
containing a list of all periodical bibliography and biblio- 
graphic institutions, which was prepared by Marcel Godet 
of the subcommittee. 

The incomplete realization of the idea embodied in the 
international convention of March 15, 1886, respecting the 
interchange of official, scientific and literary publications 
attracted the attention of the subcommittee, and as a re- 
sult of the deliberations of a committee of experts at Geneva 
July 17-19, 1924, a series of resolutions was prepared for 
embodiment in a revision of the original convention. 1 In 
the end the Belgian Government assumed charge of secur- 
ing further ratifications to the unrevised convention. 

Libraries. As a result of meetings of a Committee of 

lOfficialJournal.V, p. 1807; VI, p. 739, 1187, 1278, 1770. 
[ 120 1 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 121 

Experts regarding the Coordination of Libraries, progress 
has been made in facilitating loans and exchanges between 
the libraries of different countries and the organization of 
machinery to direct intellectual workers to libraries con- 
taining the most suitable material for their studies. More 
than 400 libraries have expressed a willingness to cooperate. 

Bibliography. The subcommittee in its early period 
considered proposals for an annual bibliography of publi- 
cations in all branches of science, literature and art and 
this has been tentatively approved by the Council. 1 On 
closer examination, it was decided to divide this field 
into its constituent parts, due in some measure to the 
fact that various annual bibliographies or bibliographical 
summaries existed. The bibliography of biological science 
is thus taken care of. The Institute has summoned meet- 
ings of experts on the coordination of bibliography in 
economic sciences and linguistic bibliography. 

Research. The Institute has interested itself in the 
facilitation of research work in the historical and social 
sciences. A proposition to translate scientific works from 
little known languages is being investigated. 

Preservation of Manuscripts. A Committee of Experts 
has been studying the problem of the preservation of 
printed matter and manuscripts, especially with relation 
to the quality of print paper in use. 

Linguistic Terms. An inquiry of considerable im- 
portance is being conducted into the standardization of 
linguistic terms, owing to the fact that the technical words 
of grammar are given various meanings, creating difficulty 
of comprehension for the student. 

Arts and Letters 

The Subcommittee on Arts and Letters was established 
on July 28, 1925. Its first work was to draw up the general 
program for the activities of the corresponding section of 
the Institute. Since that time it has both assumed charge 

1 Official Journal, V, p. 1536. 

[121] 



122 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

of work originally undertaken by other subcommittees 
and developed its own field. 

Museums. Under its direction, and with approval of 
the Council, there was established on September 3, 1926, 1 
the International Museums Office as an organ of the In- 
stitute, which publishes a review and has embarked upon 
a considerable program. It is conducting an inquiry into 
the unification of museum catalogs and is evaluating their 
educational influence and the means for increasing it. 

Chalcography. Under the subcommittee, a Committee 
of Representatives of Chalcographical Institutes reached 
an agreement in 1927 with regard to the exchange and sale 
of prints and their joint exhibition. Under this, joint ex- 
hibitions of proofs were held in Madrid, Paris and Rome 
in 1927 and in Birmingham, Brussels, Buenos Aires, 
Geneva, Liege and London in 1928. 

Casts. In January, 1928, a meeting of Experts on 
Casts of Works of Art was held at Geneva in order to 
bring museums of casts and casting studios into coopera- 
tion. A handbook of these is to be drawn up and a list of 
the best molds prepared. The cooperation of official cast 
workshops in producing expensive or difficult casts is to 
be undertaken and joint exhibitions are to be held. Three 
such exhibitions covering the entire history of art are to 
be held in 1929. Belgium, France, Germany, Great 
Britain, Greece and Italy are cooperating in this program. 

Popular Arts. The subcommittee organized a Congress 
of Popular Arts at Prague in October, 1928, and this was 
preceded by an International Exhibition of Popular Arts 
in Bern a few months earlier. 

Publication of an international yearbook of the arts has 
been approved in principle. 

Motion Pictures. The subcommittee has instructed the 
Institute to prepare a report on the motion picture as a 
form of art, and on its initiative the Assembly passed a 
resolution calling "the attention of Governments to the 
danger of cinematographic performances and broadcast- 

i Official Journal, VII, p. 1287. 
[ 122 1 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 123 

ing characterized by a spirit antagonistic to that of the 
League." 

Music. A list of contemporary musical compositions per- 
formed or published is compiled periodically by the Institute. 

Differences in the pitch of different musical instruments 
affects that great branch of art. The Committee of Ex- 
perts has found the 1859 standard which was confirmed by 
an international conference at Vienna in 1885 still appli- 
cable and is considering means of completely maintaining it. 

Literary Works. The international committee has re- 
ferred to the national committees a proposal made by 
John Galsworthy of the subcommittee that translations 
of literary works be made, the Federation of P. E. N. Clubs 
selecting the works and making the translations. 

Intellectual Rights 

The Subcommittee on Intellectual Rights was estab- 
lished August 3, 1922. 

Scientific Property. The subcommittee at the outset 
decided that the protection of scientific property and the 
right of the scientist to his invention should be the subject 
of a draft international convention based on the idea that 
scientific discovery should rank with artistic creation and 
technical invention, both of which are protected, the former 
by copyright and the latter by patents. While the in- 
vention of a new rubber heel may bring a fortune to the 
patentee, the scientist who discovers the process of vul- 
canizing or a formula for producing a special steel alloy is 
protected by no law with respect to the industrial exploita- 
tion of his discovery. The Fourth Assembly approved the 
principle of the plan and the collection of observations from 
the Governments throws light on practical means of carry- 
ing it out. A special Committee of Experts at Paris in 
December, 1927, prepared a revised draft of the scheme, 
which was laid before the Ninth Assembly 1 after approval 
by the Committee. The draft has been submitted to 
Governments for their opinion. The principle governing 

1 League of Nations, A. 21. 1928. XII. 
\ 123 ] 



124 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

the right is that "every scientific discovery open to material 
utilization entitles its author to remuneration from the 
users thereof," utilization being understood as "contribu- 
tory to the production of a commercial commodity." 

Literary and Artistic Property. The subcommittee, in 
cooperation with that on arts and letters, contributed to 
the revision at Rome on June 2, 1928, of the Bern conven- 
tion for the protection of literary and artistic works, signed 
September 9, 1886, and revised at Berlin November 13, 
1908. The subcommittee from the outset had worked to 
increase the number of parties to the convention. It had 
made an extensive study of the revision required, and at 
the international conference at Rome these were generally 
realized. The Ninth Assembly requested that investiga- 
tions be made respecting the unification of the revised 
Rome convention and the copyright convention signed in 
1910 at Buenos Aires by the American states and revised 
in Habana in 1928. This investigation involves a study of 
all national laws and measures for the protection of intel- 
lectual property. 

The subcommittee examined the protection of pro- 
fessional titles, and a resolution for the consideration of 
Governments was prepared by it. 1 

Status of International Organizations. The subcom- 
mittee has launched an extensive study of the legal status 
of international associations and foundations. This is 
being continued in collaboration with the Committee of 
Experts for the Progressive Codification of International 
Law, and the results will be considered by the International 
Institute for the Unification of Private Law. 

The conditions contributing to the smuggling and forgery 
of works of art and antiquity have been under extensive 
investigation. 

Archeological Research. At its first meeting the sub- 
committee took up the question of coordinating archeo- 
logical research and the protection of ancient monuments. 
The purposes in mind were the allocation of the exploring 

i Official Journal, V, p. 1528. 

[124] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 125 

field, the framing of a list of archeological sites not yet 
explored, aid in enabling explorers to benefit by each other's 
methods, and international rules for the preservation of 
archeological monuments. 

Circulation of Publications. The Ninth Assembly recog- 
nized the importance of a resolution of the subcommittee 
respecting obstacles to the international circulation of 
scientific and technical publications for which favorable 
customs and postal arrangements should be made. The 
Institute has been instructed to propose a customs nomen- 
clature by which such works should be exempt from cus- 
toms duties. It has the benefit of suggestions from pub- 
lishers in this connection. 

Statistics. The subcommittee has given its approval to 
a report on the compilation of intellectual statistics sub- 
mitted to the International Institute of Statistics at its 
plenary session, 1927-28, at Cairo. 

Instruction of Youth 
The Fifth Assembly decided that it was important that 
the youth of the entire world should be familiarized 
with the principles and work of the League of Nations and 
that the younger generation should be trained to consider 
international cooperation as the normal method of con- 
ducting world affairs. It instructed the Secretariat to 
investigate the means by which efforts to promote con- 
tact and to educate the youth of all countries in the ideals 
of world peace and solidarity may be further developed 
and coordinated and to submit a report. 1 The Sixth As- 
sembly in 1925 regarded the report "as a first stage" and 
requested the continued collection of information. As a 
consequence, the Committee on Intellectual Cooperation 
in January, 1926, decided to appoint an expert subcom- 
mittee to examine the whole question and proposed to the 
Council that this should be formed of ten or twelve mem- 
bers, including three members of the committee. On 

1925 T XIi eP ° rt ^ aVailable in se P arate for m as Documents A. 10 and A. 10 (a). 

[125] 



126 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

March 15 x the Council instructed its president, after con- 
sulting the chairman of the Committee on Intellectual 
Cooperation, to appoint the members of the subcommittee, 
the primary qualification being experience in teaching. 

The Subcommittee of Experts for the Instruction of 
Youth in the Aims of the League of Nations in two regular 
meetings and one limited meeting examined the material 
which had been gathered, in part from international as- 
sociations, and which had been published for the Seventh 
Assembly. 2 Eventually a series of recommendations re- 
sulting from the study of all these suggestions was laid be- 
fore the Eighth Assembly in what it called a remarkable 
report. 3 The subcommittee continues its work on the lines 
suggested by the Council report of September 2, 1927. 4 

The 1927 Assembly specifically approved the subcom- 
mittee's recommendations for creating League of Nations 
Educational Information Centers. 5 

Member States to Act. The Assembly approved the 
recommendations as a whole and instructed "the Secretary- 
General to communicate them to the Governments of the 
states Members of the League of Nations, requesting them, 
so far as may be possible in each particular case, to take 
the necessary measures to give effect" to them. 

Section II of the report deals with the many possible 
methods of developing the spirit of international coopera- 
tion, which was generally defined from the point of view of 
the Assembly's 1924 resolution. 6 

Numerous practical methods of promoting direct and 
indirect contacts between young people of different coun- 
tries are described and discussed. 

Section I of the recommendations is devoted to instruc- 
tion in schools and higher educational institutions, its con- 

i Official Journal, VI, p. 569, 506. 

2 Ibid., p. 1202; separately, A. 26. 1926. XII. A. 5. 

3 A. 26. 1927. XII. A. 3. 

* Official Journal, VIII, p. 1110. 

« How to Make the League of Nations Known and to Develop the Spirit of International 
Cooperation, p. 20 (C. 515. M. 174. 1927. XII. A. 9). 

* Ibid., p. 17. 



126 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 127 

ditions, methods and mechanism, including books and 
other material. Special emphasis is given to providing 
concrete aids to teaching. The recommendations include 
plans for both class-room and outside realization. "In- 
struction should begin in the primary school and should 
be continued to as late a stage as possible in the general 
education of the pupil," girls as well as boys. Special 
courses for teachers are suggested and definite types of 
literature and material for visual instruction are indi- 
cated, in addition to reading matter for children of various 
ages. 

Institutions of university grade may create special 
chairs and in any case it is desirable that they give one or 
more special courses on the League of Nations and inter- 
national relations in general. Encouragement of selection 
of League problems as subjects of theses is desirable and 
the study of international law should be made compulsory 
for all law students. Methods useful for voluntary as- 
sociations are listed in the recommendations. 

" Those in charge of educational institutions should be 
asked to use their influence to insure that text-books in 
general should not be written in such a way as to conflict 
with the spirit of mutual conciliation and cooperation," says 
the report. "In this respect, history text-books should be 
the subject of particular care. It is desirable that, in every 
country, incitements to hatred of the foreigner should be 
eliminated and every effort made to arrive at a better com- 
prehension of what one nation owes to another." 

A special reference book giving an account of the work 
of the League of Nations and the International Labor Or- 
ganization for the use of teachers is being prepared, which 
will probably assume a biennial form. 

Several countries, among them Canada, Denmark, 
France, the Netherlands and the South African Union, have 
introduced the teaching recommended into their school 
curricula. The Ninth Assembly noted "with satisfaction 
the readiness with which teachers in secondary and ele- 
mentary schools have answered the appeal for cooperation 

[ 127 1 



128 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

addressed to them, and welcomes the organization of 
courses of study with a view to their special requirements, 
not only on a national basis by various committees, but also 
on an international basis at Geneva and elsewhere." 

5. Suppression of Opium Traffic 

Art. 23 of the Covenant provides that, "subject to and 
in accordance with the provisions of international con- 
ventions existing or hereafter to be agreed upon, the Mem- 
bers of the League (c) will intrust the League with the 
general supervision over the execution of agreements with 
regard to . . . the traffic in opium and other dangerous 
drugs." 

An international opium commission met at Shanghai in 
1909 and a conference was convened at The Hague in 1912, 
resulting in a convention for the international control of 
opium and similar drugs. Additional conferences were 
convened in 1913 and 1914 with the purpose of bringing 
the 1912 convention into force. 1 This had not taken place 
at the outbreak of the world war. With a view to making 
the convention effective, the signatories of the treaties of 
peace by Art. 295 of Versailles and corresponding articles 
of the other treaties agreed "that ratification of the present 
treaty should, in the case of powers which have not yet 
ratified the opium convention, be deemed in all respects 
equivalent to the ratification of that convention." 

By the opium convention the Netherlands Government 
was designated as the depository of ratifications and the 
collector of data respecting the traffic. This Government 
requested the League, 2 in view of Art. 23 of the Covenant, 
to assume the duties placed upon it by the convention with 
regard to the collection of data and dealing with disputes. 
This proposal was accepted by the First Assembly. The 
task of securing ratifications was intrusted to the League. 
By April 1, 1928, the convention had been ratified by all 

i Treaty Series, VIII, p. 188. 

2 Records of the First Assembly, Meetings of Committees, I, p. 181. 

\ 128 1 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 129 

states except Afghanistan, Argentine Republic, Lithuania, 
Paraguay, Persia, Russia and Turkey, which had taken an 
obligation to ratify. 1 

International Engagements 
Continuing from this basis the League prepared and 
held two opium conferences 2 in 1924-25, the conventions 
of which became in 1928 the starting point of its work 
in this field. 

The Second Conference, convened for carrying out the 
provisions of the 1912 Convention for limitation of the 
manufacture and production of opium and its derivatives 
to the amount required for medicinal and scientific pur- 
poses, sat from November 17, 1924, to February 19, 1925, 
and was attended by representatives of 41 Governments! 
The United States delegation withdrew on February 6, 
1925, on the ground that "the conference is unable to ac- 
complish" strict limitation of raw opium and coca leaves 
to medical and scientific purposes. 

The convention of the Second Opium Conference, 
signed at Geneva, February 19, 1925, came into force Sep- 
tember 25, 1928. 3 It is in replacement of Chaps. I, III 
and V of the 1912 convention. The 1925 conventions 
replace the 1912 convention and "complete and strengthen 
its provisions." 

The convention of 1925 contains seven chapters. Chap. 
I gives definitions of raw opium, medicinal opium, mor- 
phine, diacetylmorphine, coca leaf, crude cocaine, cocaine, 
ecgonme and Indian hemp; five definitions being addi- 

p. 87)^^ ° f Pea ° e ' Lausanne ' July 24 > 1923 > Art - 1Q 0. ° (Treaty Series, XXVIII, 

Axr ^o 1111 a S5 oun <; see The international Opium Conferences, by Raymond L Buell 
(World Peace Foundation Pamphlets, VIII. Nos. 2-3). y Uel1 

Beldut aa RHtTh M p VI> P p 6 f ; Re! % N °- 1845 ' R^fications: Australia, Austria, 
Belgium British Empire, Bulgaria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, India Taoan 

Cu a^) L New ^^ pT^^J^^ 1 Netherlands Indies', SurLm "and 
CLraca ), New Zealand, Poland and Free City of Danzig, Portugal Soain Snrlan 

Z ^ 10 Do°Lv Uth A p riCa Hr AcC JT ssions: State of Sarawak, Bahamas Free City of Da^ 

RumSrSL^H^^ w' ? f Pt> I in,and ' San Marino ' Monaco - New Hebrides, 
Rumania, Salvador. Subject to ratification: Bolivia, Italy, Venezuela. 

[129] 



130 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

tional to those of 1912. Chap. II relates to internal con- 
trol, the parties undertaking to enact laws and regulations 
for the effective control of production, distribution and 
export of raw opium and to limit the localities of export 
or import of raw opium or coca leaves. Chap. Ill, internal 
control of manufactured drugs, applies to the drugs listed 
above, preparations of them, and any other narcotic drug 
which is found liable to similar abuse by the Health Com- 
mittee of the League in consultation with the Comite in- 
ternational d'Hygiene publique. 1 The contractants agree 
to enact effective legislation to "limit exclusively to medical 
and scientific purposes the manufacture, import, sale, dis- 
tribution, export and use" of the specified substances. 
Control shall be exercised over all concerned with them 
by a license system. Chap. IV applies the principles of the 
convention to Indian hemp. Chap. V, control of inter- 
national trade, obligates each contracting party to require 
separate import or export "authorization to be obtained 
for each importation [or exportation] of any of the sub- 
stances" specified. Full details to render this system ef- 
fective are agreed to, covering such matters as free port 
handling, bonded warehousing, passage through third 
countries, etc. 

Chap. VI establishes a Permanent Central Board ot 
eight persons, not holding offices dependent on their Gov- 
ernments. The board was appointed by the Council in 
December, 1928, from persons commanding general confi- 
dence and possessing a knowledge of the drug situation in 
its various phases. "The United States 2 and Germany 
shall be invited each to nominate one person to participate 
in these appointments." "The full technical independence 
of the board in carrying out its duties" is to be assured. 
Before December 31 each contractant is to send to the 
board estimates of its requirements of drugs for the follow- 
ing year. An annual report is to be made after the close of 

iDilaudide, benzoyl-morphine and the morphine esters generally have been so 
included, and also products under the names of eucodal and dicodide. 

■ Declined to nominate (note of October 1, 1928), but will "endeavor to furnish such 
information as the Permanent Central Board may request. 

[130] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 131 

each year giving statistics of production, manufacture, 
stocks on hand, consumption and confiscations, the report 
to be communicated to contracting parties. Imports and 
exports are to be reported quarterly. The statistics are to 
be furnished in such form as "to enable the amounts re- 
quired in the country for general medical and scientific 
purposes to be ascertained." Other statistics are to be 
forwarded ' in order to complete the information of the 
board as to the disposal of the world's supply of raw 
opium. 

If the board concludes from the information at its dis- 
posal that excessive quantities of any drug are accumulating 
in any country or the latter is in danger of becoming a 
center of illicit traffic, the board may ask for explanations 
through the Secretary-General of the League. If an ex- 
planation is unsatisfactory or none is forthcoming, the 
board has the right to call the matter to the attention of all 
contracting Governments and of the Council, as well as to 
recommend the cessation of exports to that country. The 
right of a hearing is given to the offending country The 
board has the right to publish a report on the matter for 
communication to all contracting parties. The board 
may take the same measures of notification to states not 
parties to the convention. It is the friendly right of 
contractants to draw the attention of the board to any 
matter within its competence which appears to require 
investigation. The board will make an annual report, 
which will be published. 

Chap. VII provides for penal legislation to be passed by 
the contractants, for legislation to assist the board and for 
the mutual exchange of all pertinent legislation. Pro- 
visions for settling disputes over the text and the customary 
stipulations respecting accession, ratification, etc., complete 
the convention. 

The protocol * consists of an agreement to prevent within 

sue i£s£*sr ^ss^J^aaj^UK 

[131] 



132 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

five years the smuggling of opium from constituting a 
serious obstacle to the effective suppression of the use of 
prepared opium in territories where its use is temporarily 
authorized. 

The final act expresses the hope that the convention be 
applied in the colonies, possessions, protectorates and 
territories of the contractants. It urges consideration of 
prohibiting ships from carrying drugs without export au- 
thorization. Cooperation of national authorities in the 
suppression of illicit traffic and the requirement of sureties 
from licensed dealers are recommended. 

Far Eastern Control 

The First Opium Conference, held at Geneva, Novem- 
ber 3, 1924, to February 11, 1925, between the representa- 
tives of the British Empire, China, France, India, Japan, 
Netherlands, Portugal and Siam, produced an agreement, 
a protocol and a final act with the purpose of bringing about 
"the gradual and effective suppression of the manufacture 
of, internal trade in and use of prepared opium" in Far 
Eastern possessions and territories and "of taking all 
possible steps for achieving the suppression of the use of 
opium for smoking." 

The agreement, 1 which came into force July 28, 1926, 
makes the importation, sale and distribution of opium a 
state monopoly, and also the making of the prepared 
product as soon as circumstances permit. Retail sale by 
licensed persons only is stipulated, while the system of 
such sale by salaried persons is to be tried. Sales to minors 
are prohibited and their presence in smoking divans inter- 
dicted. Private dealing in "dross" is prohibited. The 
export of import opium is to cease, and transit is placed 
strictly under control. Instruction to discourage the use 
of prepared opium is advocated. Legislative measures to 
render illegitimate transactions punishable are contem- 
plated. All obtainable information as to the number of 

i Treaty Series, LI. p. 337. China did not sign. The other participants in the 
conference have all ratified. 

[132] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 133 

opium smokers is to be reported to the League Secretariat 
for publication. A further conference is to take place not 
later than 1929. 

The protocol promises the initiation of measures to re- 
duce the use of prepared opium so that it "may be com- 
pletely suppressed within a period of not more than 15 
years." This period will begin when a commission ap- 
pointed by the League Council determines that measures 
to prevent the exportation of raw opium make possible 
the reduction of consumption. If failure to accomplish 
this should appear, the fact may be brought before the 
Council; if the decision should result in any state de- 
nouncing the protocol, a fresh conference will be held at 
once. Coordination of effort to effect the complete and 
final suppression of the use of prepared opium is provided 
for. 

The Assembly recommended the Council to appoint a 
commission of three to inquire into the situation in Far 
Eastern countries as regards the use of opium prepared 
for smoking, measures taken by Governments to give 
effect to the Hague convention of 1912 and the Geneva 
agreement, the nature and extent of the illicit traffic in 
the Far East, the difficulties which it causes in the fulfilment 
of international obligations and possible remedies. The 
Assembly expressed the hope that the American Govern- 
ment would permit the commission to visit the Philippines 
and the United States has agreed to cooperate in this 
matter. 

Duties of the Committee 
The Advisory Committee on Traffic in Opium and Other 
Dangerous Drugs was appointed by the Council at the 
request of the Assembly on February 21, 1921. It con- 
sists of representatives of states chosen by their Govern- 
ments and three assessors named by the Council. The 
object is to commit the Governments chiefly concerned 
either as producers or consumers in the decisions con- 
stantly taken. The following 14 countries are represented 

[133] 



134 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

on the committee: The Netherlands, Great Britain, France, 
India, Italy, Japan, China, Siam, Germany, Bolivia, 
United States, Serb-Croat-Slovene State, Portugal and 
Switzerland. 

Development of the committee's functions has been an 
arduous task. In 1921, it issued a questionnaire to all 
Governments to bring out the extent of the world's needs 
of manufactured drugs for medicinal and scientific use. 
This questionnaire was sent by the League directly to the 
United States Government, but when a reply was not 
received, the request was then forwarded to Washington 
by the Netherlands Government which had been intrusted 
with this duty under the 1912 Convention. The United 
States had a representative at the fourth session of the com- 
mittee, in an "unofficial and consultative capacity." 
Under public resolution No. 96, 67th Cong., approved 
March 2, 1923, which requested the President "to urge 
upon the Governments of certain nations the immediate 
necessity of limiting the production of habit-forming 
drugs and the raw materials from which they are made to 
the amount actually required for strictly medicinal and 
scientific purposes," the United States accredited a dele- 
gation to the fifth session of the committee and has since 
participated in its work. 

For several years the work of the committee explored the 
field for types of information that it required, and new 
phases of the problem, such as the need to study the uni- 
fication of statistics. The committee has also developed 
important systems for information and control of illicit 
traffic. 

An exchange of information in regard to drug seizures is 
in full effect and results in an annual publication of all 
seizures reported. At first the reports showed an increase 
in illicit traffic, but the recent tendency has been for the 
absolute amounts to show an annual decrease. 

A survey of national laws, including penalties inflicted 
for traffic in narcotics, has been made. 

A system of import and export certificates, which has 

[134] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 135 

the combined effect of making official records of all licit 
traffic in drugs and of controlling the traffic, has been in 
force for several years and by April, 1928, was in operation 
in 39 states, 39 British colonies, five mandates and six 
other colonies. 1 

The question of the world's legitimate requirements for 
drugs has been explored in order to afford a basis for 
judging the extent of the illicit traffic and providing means 
to abolish it. A joint subcommittee of the Opium and 
Health Committees of the League reached the conclu- 
sion that the requirement could be fixed at 600 milligrams 
per head per year, calculated in raw opium with 10% 
morphine. The Second Opium Conference adopted the 
Health Committee's revision of 450 milligrams, but pointed 
out that this made inadequate allowance for the legitimate 
consumption of morphine, on which adequate information 
was not available. 

Production in Persia 
Early in the work of the committee, it was found that a 
large amount of opium smuggling originated in the Persian 
Gulf and involved opium produced in Persia. In the 
spring of 1926, a Commission of Inquiry on Opium Produc- 
tion in Persia paid a visit to that country to determine the 
possibility of substituting other crops for the very profit- 
able opium poppy. The American Bureau of Social 
Hygiene contributed 150,000 gold francs toward the ex- 
penses of the commission. The report made definite sug- 
gestions for the replacement of the opium poppy by other 
crops. The Persian Government, before the Council on 
March 11, 1927, 2 was prepared to accept the recommenda- 
tions in principle, subject to reconsideration after three 
years.^ The agricultural problem involved not only sub- 
stituting other crops for opium but providing irrigation 
and transport. ^ The Government proposed to exempt from 
taxation land diverted from opium cultivation and to grant 

1 Official Journal, IX, p. 1097. 
* Ibid., VIII, p. 392. 

[135] 



136 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

loans to cultivators reducing their poppy crop. The 
goodwill of Persia was commended by the Eighth Assembly 
in 1927. 

Administrative Control 

A representative of Italy sat on the committee for the 
first time during its ninth session in 1927. He took the 
position of a country which is solely concerned with re- 
ducing the menace to its population resulting from the 
overproduction of drugs and which itself produces no 
opium. He asked for an extraordinary meeting of the 
committee to study both measures for the limitation and 
rationing of drug manufacture and the question of smug- 
gling, its causes and measures for its suppression. The 
10th session of the committee, September 28-October 8, 
1927, was devoted to this program. M. Cavazzoni pre- 
sented for consideration a model code for the adminis- 
trative control of the drug traffic. This draft model code 
has been submitted to Governments for their opinions 
concerning it. 

6. Women and Children 

Traffic in Women 

Art. 23 of the Covenant provides that, "subject to and 
in accordance with the provisions of international con- 
ventions existing or hereafter to be agreed upon, the 
Members of the League ...(c) will intrust the League with 
the general supervision over the execution of agreements 
with regard to the traffic in women and children." 

Conferences. A conference was held at Paris, July 15- 
25, 1902, on this subject and a convention signed there on 
May 18, 1904, to which the United States is a party. A 
further conference, resulting in a revised convention, was 
held at Paris, April 18-May 4, 1910. A preliminary con- 
ference looking toward a second revision of the 1904 con- 
vention at a later date was held at Brussels, October 21-24, 
1913. The League's first effort was to bring about this 
contemplated revision and so to extend the system of pro- 

[136 1 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 137 

tection along lines that experience had shown to be de- 
sirable and feasible. The International Conference on 
White Slave Traffic was held at Geneva, June 30-July 5, 
1921, with 35 states participating. 

The international convention for the suppression of the 
traffic in women and children, 1 opened for signature Sep- 
tember 30, 1921, was registered by the Secretariat of the 
League of Nations on June 15, 1922. By Art. 1 the 
parties agree to ratify or adhere to the agreement of May 
18, 1904, and the convention of May 4, 1910. 

The Governments agreed in 1904 to establish or desig- 
nate an authority to centralize "all information concerning 
the procuration of women or girls with a view to their 
debauchery in a foreign country"; to seek to determine 
the identity of procurers engaged in criminal traffic; to 
receive declarations of women and girls of foreign national- 
ity surrendered to prostitution and to take measures for 
their repatriation. 

By the 1910 convention states undertake to punish any 
person debauching either a woman or girl, even with her 
consent, with a view to commercializing her, though the 
various acts are accomplished in different countries; to 
communicate their respective laws to each other and to 
provide special means of extraditing culprits under the 
convention. Persons convicted of offenses connected with 
the white slave traffic are to be listed and the information 
circulated to contracting Governments. The 1921 con- 
vention reiterates these provisions. 

The parties to the 1921 convention agree to take ap- 
propriate measures for guarding the licensing and super- 
vision of employment agencies and offices so as to insure 
the protection of women and children seeking employ- 
ment in another country. In connection with immigra- 
tion and emigration, they undertake to adopt such measures 
as are required to check the traffic in women and children 
and to set up special means of protection at points of 
departure and arrival. 

1 Treaty Series, IX, p. 415. 
[137] 



138 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 



Advisory Committee's Work 

The final act 1 of the conference consisted of 15 recom- 
mendations directed by the 35 participating Governments 
to the Council of the League and substantially became the 
initial program of the committee suggested by it. 

On January 14, 1922, the Council constituted the Ad- 
visory Committee on the Traffic in Women and Children, 
which was organized so as to comprise Government rep- 
resentatives of 10 states, including the United States, and 
five delegates of associations. The committee was reor- 
ganized on December 10, 1924, 2 owing to the relationship 
established by the League with the International Associ- 
ation for the Promotion of Child Welfare. The reorgan- 
ized committee bears the title of " Advisory Commission for 
the Protection and Welfare of Children and Young People." 

This committee consists of two sections, with separate 
assessors, Government representatives having the right to 
a seat in each. The first section is the "Committee on 
Traffic in Women and Children," and the second the "Child 
Welfare Committee." The two committees hold their 
regular sessions at the same time, the president having the 
right to convoke the two committees in plenary session for 
the discussion of any question. 

Annual Reports. Annual reports are received from states 
parties to the existing conventions, including the United 
States. They deliver their reports for a given year in the 
first half of the succeeding year, and reply to a question- 
naire 3 in which states are requested to report all laws and 
regulations in force, the central authority charged with 
executing them, the degree of supervision of emigration 
and immigration with relation to traffic in and protection 
of women, and for a statement of their attitude toward the 
maintenance of licensed houses. Additional information is 

1 Records of the International Conference on Traffic in Women and Children, Geneva, 
1921, p. 133 (C. 484. M. 339. 1921. IV). 

2 Official Journal, VI, p. 135, 221. 
« Ibid., V. p. 942. 

[138] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 139 

furnished in periodical statements by five international 
associations represented by assessors on the committee. 

Investigations. The American Social Hygiene Asso- 
ciation has prepared a collection of the laws and regu- 
lations of all countries in respect to the traffic in women, 
which has been submitted to Governments. 

The Ninth Assembly supported the committee's re- 
quest that "the Governments of all those countries which 
still retain the licensed-house system will investigate the 
question as soon as possible." The committee is collecting 
the laws in force in countries where the system is illegal. 

Extensive investigations have brought the committee 
to favor the general use of women police. 

The Council on June 5, 1928, indorsed proposals of the 
Committee regarding studies of the laws and penalties 
relating to souteneurs, i.e., persons living on the immoral 
earnings of women. 

Many other phases of the traffic are also under study. 

Methods of Traffickers 

At the request of the Advisory Committee the Council 
on July 7, 1923, appointed a committee to conduct an 
international investigation into the extent and scope of 
the traffic in women. Miss Grace Abbott, the American 
representative on the committee, who was responsible for 
the suggestion, later informed the Secretary-General that, 
as anticipated, an American private organization, the 
Bureau of Social Hygiene, Inc., would provide $75,000 
for the investigation. 

In February, 1927, the Special Body of Experts drew 
up and unanimously adopted a general report on the 
results of its two years' investigation, which had taken 
place under the direction of Bascom Johnson (American). 
The first source of information was official. Valuable in- 
formation had been obtained by means of the replies sent 
by Governments in answer to the specially framed ques- 
tionnaire; and much other valuable information had been 
given to the investigators on the spot in conversation 

[139] 



140 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

with Government officials and others. The other main 
source of information was persons connected with this 
traffic. No fewer than 6,500 persons were interviewed, 
about 5,000 of whom were connected with commercialized 
prostitution. 

The report 1 was presented to the Council 2 on March 9, 
1927, in two parts, the first giving a concise account of the 
facts disclosed by the inquiry and a statement of the con- 
clusions based upon them; the second a more detailed 
statement of evidence derived from various sources and 
arranged according to the 28 countries and 112 cities 
visited. The first part was published immediately, while 
the detailed reports on countries were sent to the Govern- 
ments for their observations. These were examined by 
the experts in November and the second part of the report 
as then revised by them was published. The Ninth As- 
sembly indorsed a proposal that the inquiry should be 
continued in other countries. 

Child Welfare Committee 

The International Association for the Promotion of 
Child Welfare, on its own application, was placed under 
the direction of the League by resolution of the Council in 
March, 1924, at which time the Council decided that the 
work hitherto carried out by the association should in the 
future be intrusted to the Secretariat, subject to ratifica- 
tion by the Assembly. The Fifth Assembly ratified this 
decision and also indorsed, and invited states Members of 
the League to be guided by, the principles of the "Declara- 
tion of Geneva," which reads: 

By the present Declaration of the Rights of the Child, commonly 
known as the Declaration of Geneva, men and women of all nations, 
recognizing that mankind owes to the child the best that it has to give, 
declare and accept it as their duty that, beyond and above all considera- 
tions of race, nationality or creed: 

i Report of the Special Body of Experts on Traffic in Women and Children (C 52. M. 
52. 1927. IV. 2). 

* Official Journal, VIII, p. 378. 

[ 140 1 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 141 

I. The child must be given the means requisite for its normal 
development, both materially and spiritually; 

II. The child that is hungry must be fed; the child that is sick must 
be helped; the child that is backward must be helped; the delinquent 
child must be reclaimed; and the orphan and the waif must be sheltered 
and succored; 

III. The child must be the first to receive relief in times of distress; 

IV. The child must be put in a position to earn a livelihood and 
must be protected against every form of exploitation; 

V. The child must be brought up in the consciousness that its talents 
must be devoted to the service of its fellow men. 

The original reorganization of the advisory Committee 
in 1924 1 left the new work to a subcommittee, called the 
Committee for the Protection of Children which assumed 
separate form in 1926. For the new duties the Council 
added a group of new assessors and also a representative 
of Belgium to the Government representatives. In addi- 
tion 2 it authorized five organizations to be represented 
as a matter of interest: International Council of Women, 
the International Suffrage Alliance, the International 
Federation of University Women, the Women's Interna- 
tional League for Peace and Freedom and the World's 
Young Women's Christian Association. 

Program. The Fifth Assembly expressed the opinion 
that the League could most usefully concern itself with 
the study of those problems on which the comparison of the 
methods and experience of different countries, consultation 
and exchange of views between the officials or experts of 
different countries, and international cooperation might 
be likely to assist the Governments in dealing with such 
problems. In 1926 the committee developed an elaborate 
general program. The Council, commenting on the limits 
of the committee's competence, adopted a report 3 in which 
it said: "Child welfare is not primarily a matter for inter- 
national action and, as the resolution of the Assembly 
indicated, the purposes which the League can serve in this 
direction are limited." 

1 Official Journal, VI, p. 135, 221. 

2 Ibid., p. 463. 

8 Ibid., VII, p. 865. 

[141] 



142 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

Reconsideration of the program resulted in a Liaison 
Subcommittee to cooperate with other League committees. 
The Ninth Assembly emphasized the value of its prepara- 
tion of preliminary draft conventions on 

The repatriation of minors who have escaped from the authority of 
their parents or guardians; 

The relief of minors of foreign nationality. This draft would be in 
the nature of a model scheme, with a view to facilitating subsequent 
work on the question and for application between interested countries. 

The execution of judgments relating to maintenance payable on 
behalf of children by persons responsible for their support who have 
deserted them and gone abroad. 

The committee helped organize and takes a particular 
interest in the International Cinematographic Institute, 
especially with respect to the creation of offices for control 
or preliminary censorship in each country and the adoption 
of hygiene and sanitary measures. 

Prevention of Blindness. In 1928 L. W. Carris, director 
of the American Association for the Prevention of Blind- 
ness, laid before the committee a scheme for the creation 
of an international organization to deal with this subject. 

Juvenile Courts. An inquiry into the scope, composi- 
tion and practice of juvenile courts conducted by the 
International Prison Commission is coordinated with the 
committee's work. 

Dangers to Children. The American Social Hygiene 
Association has placed $5,000 at the disposition of the 
League for child welfare work. The Friends of the League 
of Nations, an American society with headquarters at 
Richmond, Va., has contributed $1,500 to the League and 
these amounts are to be used in a study of environment in 
relation to moral and social dangers to children in Canada, 
Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, 
Italy and the United States. 

Illegitimacy. A report has been sent to all states on a 
questionnaire bearing on the rights and obligations of 
parents toward illegitimate children, affiliation proceed- 
ings, the legitimization of illegitimate children, the mainte- 

[142] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 143 

nance, inheritance or succession rights of illegitimate 
children, the official guardianship and the moral and ma- 
terial protection of illegitimate children. 1 

Legal Age of Marriage and Consent. The Advisory 
Commission as a whole has studied these questions. In 
1927 it expressed the opinion that the fixing of too early an 
age of consent was likely to encourage the traffic in women. 
It accordingly requested the Council to draw the attention 
of Governments to the necessity of fixing this age suf- 
ficiently late to insure the effective protection of children 
and young people. In 1928 it concluded that it was de- 
sirable that the legal age of marriage should be high enough 
to provide full safeguards as regards the health both of 
the married persons themselves and of the children of the 
marriage. It was nevertheless of the opinion that no single 
age limit could be made applicable to all countries. The 
commission recommended that Governments should ex- 
amine the age of marriage fixed in their respective laws 
with relation to physical and moral welfare. 

Obscene Publications 

The International Conference for the Suppression of the 
Circulation of and Traffic in Obscene Publications met, by 
the invitation of the Government of the French Republic, 
at Geneva, under the auspices of the League of Nations, 
from August 31-September 12, 1923, in pursuance of a 
resolution of the Third Assembly on September 28, 1922. 2 
In conformity with the resolution, the draft convention 
established by the international conference held at Paris 
in 1910, together with a questionnaire, was communicated 
on November 1, 1922, to all states. The replies to this 
questionnaire were transmitted by the Secretariat to all 
states and submitted to the conference. 

The international convention 3 for suppression of the 
circulation of and traffic in obscene publications, signed at 

1 Official Journal, VIII, p. 915. 

2 Resolutions and Recommendations . . . 1922, p. 34. 
» Treaty Series, XXVII, p. 214. 

[143] 



144 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

Geneva September 12, 1923, by 43 states entered into 
force on August 7, 1924. It is additional to the arrange- 
ment signed at Paris, May 4, 1910, which provides that the 
contracting parties are to designate an authority: 

(1) To centralize information to aid in repressing infringements of 
their municipal laws as to obscene matter, "the constitutive elements 
of which bear an international character;" 

(2) To supply all information tending to check the importation and 
to expedite the seizure of such matter; 

(3) To communicate to each other all laws applicable to the subject. 

The authorities of the states are empowered to correspond 
directly. 

By the 1923 convention the parties agree to take measures 
to define as punishable offenses, which they would seek to 
suppress, the production, possession, distribution, exhibi- 
tion, importation and exportation of obscene matters or 
things. Commerce in such articles and advertising them 
are likewise punishable offenses. Such offenses are brought 
within the jurisdiction of the courts of the country where 
the offense or any of its elements are committed. If the 
laws permit, an offense committed abroad is punishable in 
the offender's national courts. States undertake to im- 
prove their legislation so as to provide means of carrying 
out these provisions and those relating to the rendition of 
offenders, as well as to make possible the seizure, detention 
or destruction of offending materials. 

By Art. 16 of the convention the Council is called upon 
to consider the desirability of summoning a conference at 
the end of each period of five years to discuss revision. 
This point had been referred to the Traffic in Women 
Committee, which at its 1928 session reached the conclu- 
sion that the time had not yet come for a further con- 
ference. That committee is collecting annually reports on 
legislation in force. 



[144] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 145 



7. Refugees and Relief of Distress 

The refugee problem has been before the League since 
1920. It first presented itself as a task of repatriating or 
caring for hundreds of thousands of persons whom the war 
had torn from their own homes and driven into other 
countries. The influx of these disorganized and destitute 
masses of humanity into several countries created a special 
problem. Dr. Fridtjof Nansen, as High Commissioner of 
the League, met those conditions with aid provided by 
various states, and now for several years has been working 
on the second phase of the problem, which concerns im- 
proving the anomalous status of the refugees, their em- 
ployment and settlement. 

The first great humanitarian accomplishment was the 
repatriation of 430,000 prisoners of war belonging to 26 
different nations. They were returned to their homes at an 
average cost of less than $5.00 per person. The wholesale 
evacuation of Greeks and others from Asia Minor had 
thrown 1,500,000 refugees into Greece. Destitution and 
pestilence accompanied them and the necessity for rehabili- 
tation resulted in coordination of relief measures, finally 1 
taking the form of the Greek Refugee Settlement Scheme, 
and similarly the Bulgarian refugee settlement of 200,000 
persons. Over 1,500,000 Russian refugees, scattered 
throughout Europe, the Near and Far East, required much 
attention, and particularly assistance in establishing their 
identity for traveling purposes. The same problem existed 
for 300,000 Armenian refugees. 

In June, 1924, the refugee problem had resolved itself 
essentially into the placement in useful employment of 
200,000 Russian and 200,000 Armenian refugees. The 
Director of the International Labor Office was approached 
and recognized that the questions of employment and 
labor emigration fell within the scope of the Organization. 
Some 50 Governments accept the identity certificates for 

» See p. 64. 

[145] 



146 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

Russians and 35 for Armenians, 1 and many thousands have 
been settled in countries where labor is scarce. 

In 1928 other groups of unfortunates were brought 
within the scope of this task. There were 15,000 Assyrians 
and Assyro-Chaldeans in southern Russia who were un- 
able to establish themselves and wished for passports 
and employment elsewhere. In Iraq and Syria there were 
respectively 12,000 and 1,500 Assyrians who wished to be 
settled as colonists in Syria and Lebanon and Iraq under 
the direct protection of the mandatory states. Refugees 
of Turkish nationality, proscribed by their Government, 
were living in various countries of Europe. 

The 1928 Assembly called attention to the fact that a 
complete solution of the remaining problem would only be 
realized by the repatriation of the refugees in their original 
countries or their naturalization in the countries giving 
them shelter. Efforts are being made toward this end. 

The 1928 Assembly finally decided that the establish- 
ment of Armenian refugees in the Republic of Erivan 2 
shall be carried on under the auspices of the League. This 
scheme will cost about $7,500,000 for irrigation and other 
purposes. 3 Seventeen Governments have offered funds 
and Armenian organizations have contributed $500,000. 

Greek Refugee Settlement Commission 

After the retreat of the Greek army from Turkish ter- 
ritory in 1922, hundreds of thousands of the inhabitants 
sought refuge in Greece, some reaching there by their own 
efforts and others being concentrated and transported by 
Fridtjof Nansen, High Commissioner of the League for 
Refugees. The treaty of Lausanne required members of 
the Greek Orthodox Church established in Turkey to emi- 
grate to Greece. Ultimately a million and a half persons 

i See p. 79. 

2 The Armenian Socialist Soviet Republic is a part of the Transcaucasian Socialist 
Federal Soviet Republic, and includes portions of the former Russian provinces of 
Erivan, Alexandropol and Elizavetpol. 

* Scheme for the Settlement of Armenian Refugees. General Survey and Principal 
Documents. (C 699. M. 264. 1926. IV. 1927. IV. 1.) 

[ 146 ] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 147 

were refugees there. 1 The problem involved in caring for 
them became very serious for the country. They repre- 
sented a fifth of its population ; they were largely without 
funds; they had no means of support; and Greece itself 
was going through an economic and political crisis due to 
12 years of intermittent war. 

American and British charitable organizations did much 
for the refugees in the first months, but the acuteness of 
the situation was emphasized by a note of March 31, 1923, 
from the American Secretary of State announcing that the 
American Red Cross would discontinue its emergency work 
on June 30 for fully 500,000 persons. 

The Council appointed a Greek Committee on February 
2, 1923, 2 and a scheme for refugee settlement was reported 
by the Financial Committee after investigations on the 
ground. On September 29, 1923, a Greek representative 
signed a protocol approved by the Council, which estab- 
lished the Greek Refugee Settlement Commission. This 
and the accompanying statute were re-enacted in revised 
form on September 19, 1924. 3 

While a long-term loan was an essential condition for 
permanent solution of the problem, the unstable Greek 
political situation in 1923 made any loan uncertain. The 
Financial Committee of the League limited the possible 
loan to a maximum of £6,000,000 (about $30,000,000) 
three-fifths of the required amount. Political instability, 
however, rendered it inadvisable to proceed with even that 
flotation. Realizing the critical need of aid, the Bank of 
England and the Bank of Greece agreed to advance £1,- 
000,000 if an independent refugee settlement commission 
as planned were established. It was in presence of that 
offer that the signing of the 1923 protocol took place. 

The commission, of which Henry Morgenthau, former 

1 See illustrated volume, Greek Refugee Settlement (1926. II. 32). 

2 Official Journal, IV, p. 234. 

s Treaty Series, XXX, p. 413; Official Journal, V, p. 1558; Monthly Summary, 
IV, Sup., p. 26. The additional act was ratified by Greece on December 4, 1924. The 
declaration relating to the modifications made to the protocol by the additional act is in 
Treaty Series, XXX, p. 421. 

[147] 



148 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

American ambassador at Constantinople, was chairman, 1 
first met at Salonika on November 11, 1923. Equipped 
with funds and with the settlement work already under 
way, the commission's activities brought the first £1,000,000 
near exhaustion by May, 1924. A second advance of 
£1,000,000 by the Banks of England and Greece and a 
further £1,000,000 from the Bank of Greece and the Greek 
Government insured the progress of the work till 1925. 
Meantime, political stability had been established in 
Greece. 

The acceptance of the revised protocol in September, 
1924, opened the way to put the undertaking upon the 
permanent basis of a long-term international loan. 2 This 
reconstruction task differed in essential respects from 
the Austrian and Hungarian plans. Greek finances were 
not in themselves at issue, the Government requiring no 
aid for its normal operations. The scheme, yielding 
£10,000,000 ($50,000,000) in a long-term loan floated in 
December, 1924, provided for governmental guaranties, 
but it was adequately secured as well by title to land 
transferred by the Greek Government to the commission, 
by the improvements being made on the land and by the 
settlers' taxes, mortgages and rents. The loan is in- 
trinsically productive, and the scheme itself is primarily 
a huge development project, largely in Macedonia which 
was formerly a territory of deserted plains and unculti- 
vated fields. 

By the end of 1928 the commission had spent nearly 
£8,000,000 ($40,000,000) on agricultural settlement and 
more than £1,000,000 ($5,000,000) on urban settlement. 
It had settled more than 143,000 families on the land and 
28,000 in urban districts. Over 8,000,000 stremmas 
(1,976,800 acres) of land 3 had been apportioned, 76,000 
houses were built and 7,000 under construction. Since 
1923 the area under cultivation almost doubled; the total 

1 Succeeded by Charles P. Howland and then by Charles B. Eddy. 

1 For loan agreements, see p. 66. 

» See decree, Official Journal, VII, p. 1333. 

[148] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 149 

wheat crop rose from 600,000 tons in 1922 to over 900,000 
tons in the last two harvests. The output of tobacco has 
been doubled by refugees. An additional $12,167,000 
from the United States is expected to complete the work. 

Bulgarian Refugees 

On June 10, 1926, the Council considered a request from 
the Bulgarian Government * for the League's assistance in 
carrying out a scheme of settlement for Bulgarian refugees. 
The Financial Committee stated, in its report, 2 that the 
Bulgarian Government had since 1913 had to receive about 
52,000 families, representing roughly 200,000 persons. 
Thirty thousand refugees had been or could be established 
by the Government, which had spent 160,000,000 leva on 
general settlement work. There remained about 60,000 
workers to be settled on the land, that is to say, some 
33,000 families. This settlement would present great 
advantages from the point of view of Bulgaria's internal 
politics and external relations and also add to the economic 
resources of the country. The committee submitted that 
a loan of a net yield equivalent to £2,250,000 ($11,250,000) 
would be sufficient. 

The product of the loan was paid into an account inde- 
pendently controlled by the League commissioner, who 
only supervises the expenditure. Assistance is limited to 
Bulgarian citizens. The Bulgarian Government came to 
an agreement with the bond-holders of prewar loans, made 
arrangements in respect of previous liens, and brought the 
statutes of the National Bank into conformity with the 
best principles of central banking. Revenues were assigned 
for the loan service and for this purpose an arrangement 
was made with the reparation authorities. 

A draft protocol was approved by the Council and 
signed by Bulgaria on September 8, 1926. 3 This instru- 

1 Official Journal, VII, p. 1002. All pertinent documents are in "Scheme for the 
Settlement of Bulgarian Refugees. General Description and Principal Documents" 
(1926. II. 53). 

2 Official Journal, VII, p. 920. 
» Ibid., p. 1343. 

[149 1 



150 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

merit provides for the appointment by the Council of a 
commissioner who will report to the Council at least every 
three months, control the proceeds of the loan and ap- 
prove all plans of settlement. He is free to refuse to re- 
lease sums drawn from the loan, if he is not sure that the 
monies previously released have been spent as authorized 
by him. The Bulgarian Government undertakes to cen- 
tralize all services dealing with refugees. For the settle- 
ment work, it undertakes to provide at least 132,000 
hectares of land suitable for agriculture, the character and 
situation of which must be approved by the commissioner. 
The loan was issued December 24, 1926. 

The 1928 earthquake did much damage, but about 
30,000 families had been furnished with land by the end 
of 1928. The remaining 3,000 will be established on land 
reclaimed for cultivation by marsh drainage and flood pro- 
tection works. More than 2,000 houses had been built 
and large quantities of equipment and draft animals dis- 
tributed. Considerable progress had been made in eradi- 
cating malaria with the aid of the League Health Organ- 
ization and the Rockefeller Foundation. 

International Relief 

Senator Giovanni Ciraolo, president of the Italian Red 
Cross, proposed to the League the organization of an in- 
ternational federation for mutual assistance in the relief 
of peoples overtaken by disaster. The 1924 Assembly 
requested the Council to appoint a Preparatory Commit- 
tee to determine the exact scope of the proposed inter- 
national union's activities, the needs it would be designed 
to meet and the contributions required from each state. 1 
The Preparatory Committee was named by the Council on 
December 11, 1924. 2 A draft statute was submitted to 
Governments, revised in accordance with their suggestions, 3 

1 Resolutions and Recommendations . . . 1924, p. 41. 

2 Official Journal, VI, p. 148. 

8 Ibid., VII, p. 178; the revised text is at p. 338. 



150 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 151 

and perfected at a conference in which delegates from 41 
countries took part. 

The convention and statute 1 of July 12, 1927, constitute 
a Union at Geneva between states on the principle of 
official international solidarity and mutual aid in case of 
disaster. Each state undertakes to contribute to an initial 
fund a share equal to 700 Swiss francs for each unit in its 
quota of the League budget. The Union's remaining re- 
sources will be voluntary contributions and with their aid 
it will be possible constantly to replenish the initial fund. 

It will be able to send first aid without waiting for the 
result of appeals to the public in case of disasters. This 
prompt dispatch of first aid is now lacking when it would 
be most useful. In addition to rendering first aid, the 
Union is to coordinate the efforts of relief organizations in 
the event of disaster, to encourage the study of preventive 
measures against disasters, and to induce all peoples to 
render mutual international assistance. Although the 
Union has been constituted between states, it contem- 
plates an extremely close cooperation with nonofficial 
organizations, in particular with the Red Cross Societies. 
States which desire to do so may be represented by the 
national Red Cross Society. 

The International Relief Union will operate for the bene- 
fit of all stricken peoples regardless of race, nationality, 
or political or religious considerations. Its activities will 
nevertheless be limited to disasters occurring in the terri- 
tories of members of the Union, or of a nature to affect 
those territories. The convention will come into force when 
ratified or acceded to by 12 states, and when the combined 
contributions amount to 600 shares (420,000 Swiss francs 
or $84,000). 

Under the statutes, the Union will be directed by a 
General Council, which will appoint an Executive Com- 
mittee. The General Council will meet every two years 

i Ibid., VIII, p. 997. They had been signed by Belgium, Bulgaria, Colombia, Cuba, 
Danzig, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Guatemala, Italy, Monaco, Poland, 
Rumania, Spain, Turkey and Uruguay. Ecuador, Egypt and Italy have ratified and 
the Sudan has acceded. 

f 151 1 



152 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

as the deliberative and constitutional body, and will be 
composed of one delegate each from all the members of the 
Union. The Secretary-General of the League may attend 
or be represented at all meetings of the General Council 
and the Executive Committee. Decisions will be by 
majority vote. The Executive Committee will be com- 
posed of seven members appointed by the General Council 
for two years, and two representatives of the international 
organizations of the Red Cross in an advisory capacity. 
It will meet at least once a year, administer funds and 
represent the Union in dealing with the League, with 
Governments, and with organizations. It will have power 
to act on behalf of the Union and to organize relief. 

8. Mandates and Backward Peoples 

The mandatory system is adopted by Member states 
in Art. 22 of the Covenant, in which it is defined as follows: 

To those colonies and territories which as a consequence of the late 
war have ceased to be under the sovereignty of the states which formerly 
governed them and which are inhabited by peoples not yet able to stand 
by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world, there 
should be applied the principle that the well being and development 
of such peoples form a sacred trust of civilization and that securities for 
the performance of this trust should be embodied in this Covenant. 

The best method of giving practical effect to this principle is that the 
tutelage of such peoples should be intrusted to advanced nations who, 
by reason of their resources, their experience or their geographical posi- 
tion, can best undertake this responsibility, and who are willing to accept 
it, and that this tutelage should be exercised by them as Mandatories on 
behalf of the League. 

The character of the mandate must differ according to the stage of 
the development of the people, the geographical situation of the territory, 
its economic conditions and other similar circumstances. 

The territories affected are (1) those over which Germany 
renounced all rights and titles "in favor of the Principal 
Allied and Associated Powers" by Art. 119 of the treaty of 
Versailles; and (2) the territories defined as mandates in 
Part III, Sec. 7, of the treaty of peace with Turkey signed 

[152] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 153 

at Sevres, August 10, 1920. These former Turkish terri- 
tories were being administered under mandate when the 
treaty of Lausanne was signed on July 24, 1923; in the 
negotiation of that treaty Turkey, as the victor state, 
made no claim for a change of their status. 

The territories thus falling to be administered by man- 
date were allocated to mandatory states by decision of the 
Principal Allied and Associated Powers taken at the Paris 
Peace Conference on May 5, 1919. The states concerned 
drafted mandates 1 which were submitted to the Council 
of the League and eventually accepted by it after delays 
due to negotiations undertaken or initiated by the United 
States with the mandatories with a view to securing rights 
accruing to it under Art. 119 of the treaty of Versailles. 

Classes 
The mandates are divided into three classes as follows: 

"A" class: "Certain communities formerly belonging to the Turkish 
Empire have reached a stage of development where their existence 
as independent nations can be provisionally recognized subject to 
the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a Manda- 
tory until such time as they are able to stand alone. The wishes of 
these communities must be a principal consideration in the selection 
of the Mandatory." — Covenant, Art. 22, par. 4. 

Territory Mandatory Terms Defined by Council 

Palestine 2 , 3 Great Britain July 24, 1922 

Trans- Jordania Great Britain Sept. 16, 1922 

Syria and Lebanon 2 , 3 France July 24, 1922 

Mesopotamia (Iraq) Great Britain 

^ Trans- Jordania comprises "all territory lying to the east of a 
line drawn from a point two miles west of the town of Akaba on 
the gulf of that name up the center of the Wady Araba, Dead 

1 The terms of the mandates are separately printed. 

* These mandates after approval were to enter into force automatically and at the 
same time following agreement reached between the Governments of France and Italy 
on the subject of the mandate for Syria. Complete agreement between those Govern- 
ments was notified to the Council on September 29, 1923. (Official Journal, IV. p. 1355.) 

» The United States has negotiated a separate treaty with the mandatory; for 
American policy see Mandate for Palestine (Washington, Government Printing Office 
1927). 

[153] 



154 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

Sea, and River Jordan to its junction with the River Yarmuk; 
thence up the center of that river to the Syrian frontier." By 
Art. 25 of the mandate for Palestine, Great Britain as the manda- 
tory was entitled, with the consent of the Council, to postpone or 
withhold application of the mandate to that territory, principally 
because a native rule had been established there under the Emir 
Abdullah. 1 Up to 1924 the Trans-Jordanian territory was dealt 
with in the report on Palestine. 2 The Permanent Mandates Com- 
mission in its Fifth Session on October 28, 1924, raised the ques- 
tion of a separate report for Trans-Jordania, which was agreed 
to by the representative of the mandatory. On February 20, 
1928, Great Britain recognized in a signed agreement the inde- 
pendence of the Government of Trans-Jordania, the mandate con- 
tinuing in force. 

Iraq (Mesopotamia) was originally contemplated as an "A" 
mandate. The inhabitants of the territory set up a monarchical 
form of government and concluded a treaty of alliance with the 
British Government on October 10, 1922. 3 A protocol accessory 
to the treaty was signed on April 30, 1923, and four subsidiary 
agreements on March 25, 1924. As a consequence of the rela- 
tionships thus established, the mandatory status was recognized 
as no longer fully applicable to Iraq. The British representative 
applied to the Council and the latter on September 27, 1924, 
adopted in a resolution a unilateral undertaking of the British 
Government implementing the mandate. 4 On December 14, 1927, 
Iraq and the United Kingdom signed a treaty to replace that of 
1922. By Art. 1 of this treaty "his Britannic Majesty recognizes 
Iraq as an independent and sovereign state." By Art. 8, "pro- 
vided the present rate of progress in Iraq is maintained and all 
goes well in the interval, his Britannic Majesty will support the 
candidature of Iraq for admission to the League in 1932." Iraq 
undertakes to accede to general international agreements con- 
cluded with the approval of the League of Nations with respect 
to various matters; undertakes to execute the provisions of the 
Covenant and certain other treaties so far as they apply to Iraq 
and to cooperate in social, humanitarian and other activities. 
With respect to Great Britain, the position of the High Commis- 

i Official Journal, III, p. 1189, 1390; IV, p. 212. 

2 Permanent Mandates Commission, Minutes of the Fifth Session, p. 60. 

s Official Journal, III, p. 1505; Treaty Series, XXXV, p. 131-74. 

* Ibid, V, p. 1346, 1347. 



154 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 155 

sioner is defined and provision is made for the supersession of 
financial, military and judicial agreements. 

Syria and Lebanon by Art. 1 of the mandate are to be gov- 
erned under an Organic Law, which has not been promulgated. On 
March 12, 1927, the French representative stated to the Council, 1 
that the mandatory state was actively pursuing its efforts to issue 
such a law. The cause of the delay was explained as due to the 
diversity of the communities, their conflicting rights, interests and 
wishes, and the desire expressed by several of them for an autono- 
mous political regime. A provisional statute has been drawn up 
for each district in which a sufficient measure of agreement has 
been reached among the various groups of inhabitants. 

"B " class: "Other peoples, especially those of Central Africa, are at 
such a stage that the mandatory must be responsible for the 
administration of the territory under conditions which will guaran- 
tee freedom of conscience and religion, subject only to the main- 
tenance of public order and morals, the prohibition of abuses such 
as the slave trade, the arms traffic and the liquor traffic, and the 
prevention of the establishment of fortifications or military and 
naval bases and of military training of the natives for other than 
police purposes and the defense of territory, and will also secure 
equal opportunities for the trade and commerce of other Members 
of the League." — Covenant, Art. 22, par. 5. 

Territory Mandatory Terms Defined by Council 

Cameroons France 2 July 18, 1922 

Cameroons Great Britain 2 July 18, 1922 

Ruanda Urundi Belgium 2 July 18, 1922 

Tanganyika Great Britain 2 July 18, 1922 

Togoland France 2 July 18, 1922 

Togoland Great Britain 2 July 18, 1922 

" C " class: " There are territories, such as Southwest Africa and certain 
of the South Pacific islands, which, owing to the sparseness of their 
population or their small size, or their remoteness from the centers of 
civilization, or their geographical contiguity to the territory of the 
mandatory, and other circumstances, can be best administered 
under the laws of the mandatory as integral portions of its territory, 
subject to the safeguards above mentioned in the interest of the 
indigenous population." — Covenant, Art. 22, par. 6. 

1 Official Journal, VIII, p. 417. 

* The United States has negotiated a separate treaty with the mandatory. 

[155] 



156 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

Territory Mandatory Terms Defined by Council 

Southwest Africa Union of South Africa Dec. 17, 1920 

Caprivi Zipfel 

Western Samoa New Zealand Dec. 17, 1920 

Nauru Great Britain and 

Australia Dec. 17, 1920 

Former German Pa- 
cific islands south 
of Equator Australia Dec. 17, 1920 

Former German Pa- 
cific islands north 
of Equator Japan 1 Dec. 17, 1920 

Nauru was allocated as a mandate of the British Empire by an 
agreement on July 2, 1919, between the London Government and 
those of the Commonwealth of Australia and the Dominion of New 
Zealand. The island is under an administrator appointed for the 
first term of five years by the Australian Government. There is 
a board of three commissioners, one appointed by each Govern- 
ment. The island comprises about 5,396.3 acres, of which 4,216.5 
are phosphate-bearing. 

Caprivi Zipfel. The Southwest Africa mandate lies on the 
Atlantic coast of Africa, bounded on the north by Portuguese 
Angola, on the east by Bechuanaland Protectorate and on the 
south by the Union of South Africa, which is the mandatory. 
From the Okavango River on the north border a narrow strip 
between Angola and Bechuanaland extends eastward to the Zam- 
besi River. This district contains 10,573 square miles and is 
known as Caprivi Zipfel. A special report on it has been submitted 
since 1925. 

Permanent Mandates Commission 

"In every case of mandate the mandatory shall render 
to the Council an annual report in reference to the terri- 
tory committed to its charge," says Art. 22, par. 7, of the 
Covenant, which continues: "A permanent commission 
shall be constituted to receive and examine the annual re- 
ports of the mandatories and to advise the Council on all 
matters relating to the observance of the mandates." 

i The United States has negotiated a separate treaty with the mandatory. 



156 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 157 

The Permanent Mandates Commission was constituted 
by the Council on November 29, 1920. The commission con- 
sists of ten 1 members, the majority of whom are nationals 
of nonmandatory states, "appointed by the Council and 
selected for their personal merits and competence. They 
shall not hold any office which puts them in a position of 
direct dependence on their Governments while members 
of the commission." 2 

The commission receives the annual reports respecting 
each mandated territory from authorized representatives 
of the mandatory, who may offer supplementary explana- 
tions or information. The reports are examined in the 
presence of these authorized representatives, who may 
participate in the discussion. The commission determines 
its conclusions and recommendations without the repre- 
sentative being present; but its observations are com- 
municated to him and he is entitled to submit comments. 
Both documents are forwarded to the Council. Since 
1925 mandatories delegate senior officials holding re- 
sponsible administrative posts in the mandated territories 
to represent them before the commission. 

The meetings of the commission have been increasingly 
searching inquisitions into the conduct of the administra- 
tion of the mandates. Each mandate has its special 
problems ranging from the supervision of autonomous in- 
stitutions in "A" mandates down through the safeguard- 
ing^ of the interests of primitive peoples in some of the 
" C " mandates. Reports of the mandatories 3 are annually 
being developed as a result of requests by the commission 
for information. 

The commission receives petitions from responsible 
persons respecting the conduct of the mandates, and 
weighs their allegations in connection with statements made 
by the mandatory Governments. 

VUhVuS^US^ 1 ° f thC t6nth (German) member in 19 27 see Official Journal, 

2 Resolution of the Council, November 29, 1920, Official Journal, I, No. 8, p. 87. 

3 The reports are available separately. 



157 ] 



158 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

Petitions. Petitions relating to the administration of 
the Palestine mandate have been brought before many 
sessions of the Commission. 1 These emanate chiefly from 
the Ashkenasic Community in Jerusalem, the Palestine 
Arab Congress, the Zionist Organization, the Agudath 
Israel Organization and the National Council of the Jews 
of Palestine. 

Other petitions have dealt with conditions in Syria and 
Lebanon, especially in 1925 and 1926. The Rehoboth 
Community in Southwest Africa has frequently petitioned. 
Western Samoa and Togoland under French mandate have 
been the subject of other petitions. In many cases the 
grievances have been due to misunderstandings; in other 
cases complaints have resulted in satisfactory adjustments. 

General Decisions 

In addition to the terms of the mandates, which are 
calculated to insure all proper guaranties to peoples under 
mandate, the commission has secured rulings on various 
important points: 

Territorial Status. The preamble of a frontier agree- 
ment 2 between the Portuguese colony of Angola and the 
Union of South Africa stated that "the Union of South 
Africa, subject to the terms of the said mandate, pos- 
sesses sovereignty over the territory of Southwest Africa." 
The Commission expressed its doubt whether this expres- 
sion could be held correctly to define the relations between 
the mandatory power and the territory placed under its 
mandate. 3 

On September 8, 1927, the rapporteur of the Council 
stated that, the legal relationship between the mandatories 
and the territories under mandate "is clearly a new one 
in international law, and for this reason the use of some 
of the time-honored terminology in the same way as 

i See for examples Minutes of the 9th session, p. 202, 227; Official Journal, IV, p. 
298; VII, p. 1318. 

2 Treaty Series, LXX, p. 305. 

a Official Journal, VIII, P- 347, 426. 

f 158] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 159 

previously is perhaps sometimes inappropriate to the new 
conditions." 1 

Nationality. On the national status of inhabitants of 
territories under "B" and "C" mandates the commission 
has concluded : 2 

1. It is important . . . that the native inhabitants of B and C 
mandated territories should be granted a national status wholly distinct 
from that of the nationals of the mandatory power. 

2 A special law of the mandatory power should determine the status 
of these native inhabitants, who might be given a designation such as 
"administered persons under mandate" or "protected persons under 
mandate" of the mandatory power. 

Military Recruiting. "The spirit, if not the letter, of 
the mandate would be violated if the mandatory enlists the 
natives of the mandated territory (wherever they may 
present themselves for engagement) for services in any 
military corps or body of constabulary which is not per- 
manently quartered in the territory and used solely for its 
defense or the preservation of order within it." 3 

State Land. "The mandatory powers do not possess in 
virtue of Arts. 120 and 257 (par. 2) of the treaty of Ver- 
sailles any right over any part of the territory under man- 
date other than that resulting from their having been 
intrusted with the administration of the territory." 3 

Equality of Treatment. "Mandates A and B lay down 
the principle of economic equality for all nationals of states 
Members of the League and for goods coming from these 
countries. These nationals and goods therefore benefit 
ipso facto in A and B mandated territories by a clause 
which is practically equivalent to the granting of most- 
favored-nation treatment." 4 

Liquor Traffic. The commission having defined "liquor " 
for mandate purposes, 5 in 1928 asked states to inform it 

1 Official Journal, VIII, p. 1120. 

2 Ibid., IV, p. 659. 

s Ibid., VII, p. 867, 944. 

* Ibid., IX, p. 1448. 

« Ibid., VIII, p. 426, 347. 

[159] 



160 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

to which parts of the territory under their mandate they 
had already applied Art. 4, par. 2, of the St. Germain con- 
vention on liquor traffic in Africa. 

Capital. On September 15, 1925, the Council declared 
that the validity of financial obligations assumed by a 
mandatory on behalf of a mandated territory and all rights 
regularly acquired under the mandatory regime, were in 
no way impaired by administration under mandate. The 
cessation or transfer of a mandate could not take place 
unless the Council had been assured in advance that the 
financial obligations regularly assumed by the former 
mandatory would be carried out. 1 

In Iraq the capital of the Turkish Petroleum Company 
has been distributed 23.75% to each of four national 
groups and the remaining 5% to the developer of the 
project. No two groups have a voting majority. 

Application of Treaties. The Council in 1925 2 recom- 
mended that all states which had concluded special treaties 
or conventions with mandatory states, should agree to the 
extension of such agreements to mandated territories. It 
further requested mandatory states to insert in future 
agreements a clause providing for the possibility of their 
extension to mandated territories. 2 

Operation of the System 

The mandate system has maintained a steadily widening 
control for the benefit of native populations over the ter- 
ritories affected by it. The annual reports of the man- 
datory Governments have been increased in detail as a 
result of the commission's desire for full information, and 
present a reasonably complete picture of conditions and 
development. It is notable that the administration of 
most of the mandated territories has been successful enough 
in dealing with the natives that petitions have not reached 
the commission. 

i Official Journal, VI, p. 435, 495, 1363, 1513. 
*Ibid„ p. 856, 1363. 



160 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 161 

Managing mandates is a delicate business, touching 
upon all phases of life. That the system should not always 
run smoothly and without friction is consequently in- 
evitable. Three instances may show both the difficulties 
involved and the manner of conducting supervision. 

Western Samoa. In 1927 marked native disaffection 
appeared. The New Zealand Government investigated 
and found a European copra merchant, who was close to 
certain native groups, the chief of its critics. A com- 
mission of inquiry looked into the matter thoroughly, the 
European was expelled and the affair was carefully ex- 
amined at Geneva in October, 1928, when various im- 
provements in the administrative action and relations to 
the native Samoan parliamentary body were discussed. 

Palestine is regarded as the Jewish National Home. 
It is in reality largely inhabited by Arabs. The contact 
of new Jewish immigrants with the Arabs already settled 
S?? ^ P roduced innumerable frictional incidents. 
While these are far from ended, the commission has ob- 
served signs of decreased tension and a growing disposition 
of the parties to cooperate with the mandatory in working- 
toward an equitable solution. 

Syria and Lebanon. The only incident attracting world- 
wide attention culminated in the bombardment of Da- 
mascus in October, 1925. The Syria and Lebanon man- 
date is a conglomeration of races and religions, with an 
upper class opposed to outside control and the remainder 
of the population now incapable of self-government The 
bombardment of Damascus by the French mandatory 
was part of a campaign against the Jebel Druse tribe 
which was m full rebellion. The Mandates Commission 
held a special session on the situation thus brought to light 
at Rome, February 16-March 6, 1926. While French 
statements of intentions and policy in Syria and Lebanon 
were found to be satisfactory, it was found that the 
military administration which had actually been in force 
was not only badly chosen for coping with the situation 
but was also inept and provocative. An extensive change 

[161] 



162 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

of officials, including a capable high commissioner to re- 
place General Sarrail, was the chief reform effected. The 
Committee realized that very complicated native condi- 
tions existed. By 1927 revolt had disappeared and prog- 
ress toward a system of native self-government under the 
overdue Organic Law was being made. 1 

Slavery Convention 

Largely due to the information called to the attention 
of the Assembly and Council by the work of the Permanent 
Mandates Commission, a questionnaire respecting the 
existence of slavery was circulated to states in 1922. The 
1923 Assembly expressed regret that the information thus 
supplied was insufficient "to form the basis of a sufficiently 
complete report" and suggested appointment of a commis- 
sion by the Council. The Temporary Committee on 
Slavery was appointed by the Council on June 12, 1924. 2 
The report of the commission, containing suggestions to 
be submitted to the Council, showed the various aspects 
of the alienation or restriction of individual freedom, and 
recommended practical measures for joint action. 3 In 
the Sixth Assembly the Sixth Committee drew up a con- 
vention, which Governments were asked to consider. 
The Sixth Committee of the Seventh Assembly perfected 
the document. 

The slavery convention 4 signed at Geneva September 
25, 1926, entered into force March 9, 1927. It completes 
the general act of the Brussels conference of 1889-90. 
Contracting states undertake to adopt necessary legislative 
measures to implement the convention and to communi- 
cate to each other and to the Secretary-General of the 
League 5 laws and regulations on the subject. 

i A special Rapport provisoire . . . (annee 1925) gives the French account. The 
commission's session is reported in its Minutes of the Eighth {Extraordinary) Session 
(C. 174, M. 65, 1926, VI A. 5); the Council discussion in Official Journal, VII, p. o2S. 

2 Official Journal, V, p. 909. 

"See ibid., VII, p. 1030, 1140, 1547; VIII, p. 121. 

« Treaty Series, LX, p. 253. 

« Annual reports are brought to the attention of the Assembly. 

[162] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 163 



9. Protection of Minorities 

At the Paris Peace Conference a number of special 
treaties relating to the protection of racial, linguistic or 
religious minorities were concluded with the new states 
and with the states whose territory had been considerably 
increased as a result of the war. Clauses corresponding to 
those contained in these treaties were inserted in several 
treaties of peace. 

On December 15, 1920, the first Assembly requested 
that, if Albania, the Baltic and Caucasian states were ad- 
mitted to the League, they should take the necessary 
measures to enforce the principles of the minorities treaties. 1 
The Council on October 2, 1921, passed a report containing 
the text of the treaty articles and which was intended to 
serve as a form binding the states concerned. 2 A declara- 
tion embodying this report as an engagement of the state 
toward the League of Nations has been made by each 
following its admission to the League. In addition, the 
same provisions have been incorporated in other treaties. 
All of these have been collected in a volume published 
by the Secretariat. 3 

As a result of these various forms of obligation the fol- 
lowing states are effectively under the minority regime: 

Albania Hungary 

Austria Latvia 

Bulgaria Lithuania (and Memel) 

Czechoslovakia Poland 

Danzig, Free City Rumania 

Eftonia Serb-Croat-Slovene State 

Finland Turkey 

Greece 

1 Resolutions of the Assembly . . . 1920, p. 28. 

2 Official Journal, II, p. 1161. 

» Protection of Linguistic, Racial and Religious Minorities by the League of Nations 
110*192? 1° B° 2) ^ tk€ Vari0US international Instr ^ents at Present in Force (C L*. 



[163] 



164 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

In addition bilateral treaties embodying the principles 
have been made between Austria and Czechoslovakia, 
Bulgaria and Greece, Germany and Poland. 

Treaty Provisions 

The minorities provisions are recognized by the states 
affected as fundamental laws and they agree to enact no 
conflicting stipulations. The essential provisions are: 

Full and complete protection of life and liberty will be insured 
to all inhabitants . . . without distinction of birth, nationality, 
language, race or religion. 

All inhabitants . . . will be entitled to the free exercise, whether 
public or private, of any creed, religion or belief, whose practices 
are not inconsistent with public order or public morals. They will 
have the right to change their religion. 

All persons . . . not born nationals of another state shall ipso 
facto be . . . nationals. All . . . nationals shall be equal before 
the law, shall enjoy the same civil and political rights without 
distinction as to race, language or religion. 

Differences of religion, creed or confession will not prejudice 
any . . . national in matters relating to the enjoyment of civil 
or political rights. 

No restriction will be imposed on the free use by any . .^ . 
national of any language in private intercourse, in commerce, in 
religion, in the press or in publications of any kind, or at public 
meetings. 

Notwithstanding any establishment of an official language, ade- 
quate facilities will be given . . . nationals of [other] speech for 
the use of their language either orally or in writing before the 
courts. 

Nationals who belong to racial, religious or linguistic minorities 
will enjoy the same treatment and security in law and in fact as 
other . . . nationals. 

Provision will be made in the public educational system . . . 
for adequate facilities for insuring that in the primary schools 
instruction shall be given to the children of such nationals through 
the medium of their own language; it being understood that the 
teaching of the official language [may be] made obligatory in the 
said schools. 

[164] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 165 

Minorities^ will be assured an equitable share in the enjoyment 
and application of public funds for educational, religious or chari- 
table purposes. 

The stipulations affecting persons belonging to racial, religious 
or linguistic minorities are declared to constitute obligations of 
international concern and are placed under the guaranty of the 
League. They shall not be modified without the assent of a 
majority of the Council. Any Member of the Council has "the 
right to bring to the attention of the Council any infraction or 
danger of infraction of any of these stipulations, and the Council 
may thereupon take such action and give such direction as it may 
deem proper and effective in the circumstance." 

Petitions 

Procedure. The Council on October 27, 1920, passed a 
resolution and report denning the nature of the guaranties 
undertaken by the League. 1 A resolution of June 27, 
1921, by the Council laid down a series of rules regarding 
petitions in respect to minority questions. 2 Questions of 
the method of handling petitions by the Council having 
been raised, a resolution defining procedure respecting 
them was adopted on September 5, 1923. 3 A judicial re- 
port on who has the right to petition was noted by the 
Council on November 14, 1928. 4 

According to this procedure, the minorities themselves 
and states are entitled to draw the attention of the League 
of Nations to any infraction or danger of infraction of the 
treaty provisions. But this act must retain the nature 
of a petition or report pure and simple and can not have 
the legal effect of putting the matter before the Council. 

(a) must have in view the protection of minorities in accordance 
with the treaties; 

(b) in particular must not be submitted in the form of a request for 
the severance of political relations between the minority in question 
and the state of which it forms a part; 

i Minutes of 10th Session of the Council, p. 143-151; Official Journal, I, No. 8, p. 8. 
2 Official Journal, II, p. 749. 
'Ibid., IV, p. 1293. 
4 Ibid., IX, p. 1493. 

[165] 



166 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

(c) must not emanate from an anonymous or unauthenticated source; 

(d) must abstain from violent language; 

(e) must contain information or refer to facts which have not recently 
been the subject of a petition submitted to the ordinary procedure. 

In case the state concerned should object to a petition 
being received, the Secretary-General will submit the 
question to the president of the Council, who may invite 
two other members of the Council to assist him in the 
study of this question. At the request of the state con- 
cerned this question of procedure may be put on the 
agenda of the Council. 

A Government is granted two months in which to pre- 
pare a reply to a petition. Any Member of the League 
can see petitions (with the observations of the Government 
concerned) which have been communicated to the Council. 

The 1923 resolution defines the functions of the so-called 
"Committee of Three" set up by the resolution of October 
25, 1920. Examination by it of petitions and remarks on 
them by the Governments concerned shall be for the sole 
purpose of determining whether one or more members of 
the Council should bring them to the attention of the 
Council. 1 The right of any member of the Council to 
bring to the attention of that body any infraction or danger 
of infraction is preserved intact. 

A report of the Council on June 9, 1928, laid down im- 
portant definitions of the difference between an international 
dispute and a minority appeal : 2 

We are unanimous in considering that the system of the pro- 
tection of minorities instituted by the treaties, while having as 
its principal object the protection of the minority itself, is also 
intended not only to prevent that questions concerning the pro- 
tection of minorities should acquire the character of a dispute 
between nations but to insure that states with a minority within 
their borders should be protected from the danger of interference 
by other powers in their internal affairs. 

i For additional resolution of June 10, 1925, see Official Journal, VI. p. 878. 
2 Official Journal, IX, p. 942. 

[166] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 167 

. . . Once the matter is before the Council, it becomes an affair 
between the Council and the state to which the minority belongs 
nationally, not a question between that state and the state with 
which the minority is racially connected. 

Disputes arising under Guaranties 

Minority questions which have come before the Council 
have varied greatly as to character. The fact that they 
have not been very numerous and have emanated from 
only some of the areas inhabited by minorities indicates 
that the system has been relatively effective. Among the 
questions coming before the Council have been: 

Hungarian Farmers in Rumania. On June 11, 1925, 
the Council began consideration of a petition from small 
landholders of Hungarian origin in the Banat and Transyl- 
vania who complained that under Rumanian laws they 
might be deprived of their realty without adequate com- 
pensation and that measures taken against them were 
more radical than those taken against other Rumanian 
nationals. 1 Rumania suspended all measures which might 
tend to affect the situation, pending the decision of the 
Council. The Rumanian case was that the farmers in 
the districts under discussion were to be subject to ex- 
propriation of their land above a maximum amount, as 
a part of a general agrarian reform which had been de- 
cided upon prior to the World War. The number of 
farmers affected was about 2,300. After extensive presen- 
tation of documents and discussion of details of the ques- 
tion, the Rumanian Government proposed to offer the 
farmers compensation to the amount of 700,000 francs or 
$140,000. The Council accepted this proposal because it 
seemed better calculated to meet the interests of the 
farmers and to pacify the inhabitants than a legal de- 
cision dealing with the validity of the agrarian law. 2 
The beneficiaries declined to participate in allocating this 

1 Official Journal, VI, p. 891-1000. 

2 Ibid., p. 1341-1352, 1456. 



[167 



168 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

sum, and the Rumanian Government established com- 
mittees for that purpose. 1 

Polish Minority in Lithuania. Complaints from this 
minority led to a report to the Council on June 10, 1925, 
that the information supplied by the Lithuanian Govern- 
ment to the Council gave "evidence of that Government's 
desire to cooperate with the League of Nations in removing 
any doubts which might exist as to the way in which the 
Lithuanian people fulfills its obligations towards those of 
its fellow citizens which belong to a minority." 2 Subse- 
quently, the Lithuanian Government made an extensive 
statement in which it detailed the measures taken to insure 
fair treatment of the Polish minority. 3 

Jewish Minority in Hungary. A question of the Hun- 
garian numerus clausus law of 1920 came before the Coun- 
cil in September, 1922. 4 The law laid down that the num- 
ber of students of different races and nationalities entered 
on the rolls of universities and other institutions for higher 
education should be proportional to the number of in- 
habitants of such races and nationalities in the country. 
Statistics and evidence were presented to the Council by 
the Hungarian Government and the petitioners. While 
the primary question was whether the numerus clausus 
was compatible with the principle of equal treatment in 
the minority treaty, the Hungarian Government con- 
sidered the law as an exceptional measure necessitated by 
an abnormal social situation, and stated that it would be 
changed as soon as conditions altered. In view of this 
assurance, the Council on December 12, 1925, 5 decided 
not to enter into the legal question, but to await the amend- 
ment of the law in the near future. 

Upper Silesia. A number of petitions have emanated 
from Upper Silesia. One of these, dated May 26, 1925, 

i Official Journal, VII, p. 1084. 

2 Ibid., VI, p. 864, 276 at 865; compare p. 484, 581-606. 

s Ibid., p. 139, 1452. 

*Ibid., Ill, p. 1204, 1425. 

* /&*<*., VII, p. 148-153, 171. 

[168] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 169 

complained that German laws with regard to payment 
by the German Government of compensation in Upper 
Silesia led to the systematic rejection of claims put forward 
by Poles for damages incurred at the time of the partition. 
Changes of membership in the Council of the League 
necessitated consideration of the question by different 
rapporteurs, 1 but the actual administration of the laws 
seemed to have left the petitioners without reason to re- 
open the question. 

By petition of January 30, 1928, the Deutscher Volks- 
bund raised the question of the right to establish an ele- 
mentary minority school. A previous question involving 
the same problem 2 had been before the Council. The 
Permanent Court of International Justice laid down the 
principle respecting the rights of minorities with respect 
to schools, especially the authority of officials to determine 
whether an individual belonged to a minority, that a parent 
could decide the language of a child according to his 
conscience and on his personal responsibility; that the 
Polish Government was justified in not admitting children, 
whose only language was Polish, to minority schools; and 
that the declaration of a person responsible for the educa- 
tion of a child concerning his language was not to be the 
subject of any verification or dispute, pressure or hindrance 
on the part of the authorities. With this decision 3 before 
it, the Council passed a report on June 9, 1928, covering 
a series of differences and also was able to adopt a report 
upon a number of other questions relating to schools in 
Upper Silesia. 4 

Albanian Property and the Albanian Minority 

in Greece 
On April 10, 1928, the Albanian Government requested 
the Council, in virtue of Art. 11, par. 2, of the Covenant, 

1 Official Journal, VII, p. 1418. 

2 Ibid., VIII, p. 400, 491, 592. 

» Publications of the Permanent Court of International Justice, Series A, No. 15. 
* Official Journal, IX, p. 945, 946. 

[ 169 1 



170 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

to examine the question of Albanian property and of the 
Albanian minority in Greece. 

On June 5 the Council * heard statements of the parties. 
The Albanian representative stated that the application 
of the agrarian law in Greece had led to the confiscation, 
more or less disguised, of Albanian properties, despite the 
fact that in virtue of its international obligations the 
Greek Government was not entitled to proceed to expro- 
priation and requisition of foreign property without ap- 
parent reason and without a just preliminary indemnity. 
The Greek representative said that his Government was 
convinced that the Albanian request could not be received. 
Negotiations were being conducted on the questions which 
Albania had submitted to the Council in virtue of an unfair 
application of Art. 1 1 of the Covenant. The expropriation 
of Albanian lands had taken place under an agrarian law 
which the influx of refugees had rendered necessary and 
affected all landed proprietors without distinction. 

The Council on June 9 adopted a report in which it 
found that the minorities complaint should not come up 
under Art. 11, for such an appeal "would create the very 
dangers which the minorities treaties were intended to 
avert." Some of the complaints were already being ex- 
amined under the normal minority procedure. The two 
Governments agreed to negotiate directly on the question 
of Albanian property in Greece. 

Moslems of Albanian Origin in Greece 

The question of Moslems of Albanian origin in Greece, 
particularly the situation of the Albanians of Chamuria, 
was examined by the Council on March 16, 1926. The 
Greek Government informed the Council that it considered 
the exchange as practically terminated in Chamuria, and 
that it had decided not to demand the exchange of 800 
inhabitants of certain villages specially mentioned in the 
debates. The persons who remained would enjoy the same 

» Official Journal, IX, p. 871, 874, 942. 

[170] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 171 

treatment de jure and de facto as other Greek citizens. 
Any exceptional measures which the Government might 
have applied would be abrogated. 1 

Emigration Commissions 

On November 27, 1919, a convention 2 was concluded be- 
tween Greece and Bulgaria to regulate the reciprocal and 
voluntary emigration of minorities between Greece and 
Bulgaria, so that Greeks domiciled in Bulgaria may emi- 
grate to Greece, and Bulgarians domiciled in Greece may 
emigrate to Bulgaria. This convention provides for the 
formation of a Mixed Commission of four members, two 
appointed by the Council of the League. The duties of 
this commission are, generally speaking, to supervise this 
emigration. 3 

On January 30, 1923, a convention was signed at Lau- 
sanne concerning the obligatory exchange of Turkish 
nationals of Greek Orthodox religion on Turkish territory 
and of Greek nationals of Mussulman religion on Greek 
territory, with the exception of Greek inhabitants of 
Constantinople and Mussulman inhabitants of Western 
Thrace. According to the terms of this convention, a 
mixed commission has been appointed composed of four 
Turkish members, four Greek members and three mem- 
bers chosen by the Council. 4 This commission had similar 
functions to that of the Greco- Bulgarian Mixed Commis- 
sion. The final report was submitted on July 14, 1926. 5 

The resolution of the Council covering the Albanian 
declaration of October 2, 1921, provides for similar ar- 
rangements with countries bordering on Albania for re- 
ciprocal and voluntary migration of persons belonging to 
ethnic minorities, and contemplates adhesion by Albania 
to the Greco-Bulgarian convention. 6 

i Official Journal, VII, p. 153, 308, 510. For the earlier phase of this dispute under 
Art. 11, par. 2, of the Covenant, see Official Journal, V, p. 364, 1367; VI, p. 234. 
2 Treaty Series, I, p. 67. 
» Official Journal, I, No. 8, p. 84. 
*Ibid., IV, p. 1312. 
s Ibid., VII, p. 1137; cf. also p. 160. 
•Ibid., II, p. 1162. 

[ 171 ] 



172 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 



10. Administration of Territory 
The Saar Basin 

By the treaty of peace with Germany the Saar Basin is 
transferred under various conditions to the control of 
France "as compensation for the destruction of the coal 
mines in the north of France and for part payment toward 
the total reparation due from Germany from the damage 
resulting from the war." The coal mines in the basin are 
ceded "to France with full and absolute possession." The 
government of the basin territory and provisions for a 
plebiscite in 1935 are set forth. By Art. 49 of the treaty 
Germany renounces in favor of the League of Nations, in 
the capacity of trustee, the government of the territory. It 
is also provided that "the decisions of the Council of the 
League of Nations will be taken by a majority" in all 
matters respecting it. The Saar Basin, with the excep- 
tion of the mines, will therefore have a League of Nations 
government until January 10, 1935. 

By pars. 23 and 26 of the Annex to the Saar section of 
the treaty of Versailles the laws and regulations in force 
shall not be changed and taxes and dues shall not be im- 
posed "without previously consulting the elected repre- 
sentatives of the inhabitants." A decree of March 24, 
1922, 1 of the Governing Commission established an Ad- 
visory Council and a Technical Committee. The Tech- 
nical Committee consists of eight members versed in 
economics, administrative and financial matters appointed 
for one year by the Governing Commission and consulted 
by it at will. The Advisory Council consists of 30 mem- 
bers elected by the citizens for three years, and it meets 
every three months. The members elected in 1928 serve 
until March 31, 1931. 2 

The League is responsible for the plebiscite to be held in 
1935. The treaty of Versailles provides that the voters 

1 Official Journal, III, p. 414. 
*Ibid„ IX, p. 761. 

[172] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 173 

should be "all persons without distinction of sex more than 
20 years old at the date of the voting" who were resident 
in the Saar on June 28, 1919. The object was to prevent 
the frequent dispute in plebiscites as to who are qualified 
voters. The voting lists were prepared in September, 
1922, by a provisional records commissioner appointed by 
the Council of the League, 1 and as a consequence, the vital 
records necessary for determining the voting lists are now 
in the custody of the League. 

By the treaty, the Governing Commission always includes 
a French member. M. V. Rault, the French member, 
served as chairman until April 1, 1926, having been criti- 
cized for acting more like a French than an international 
official. He was succeeded by a Canadian, George W. 
Stephens, and he by an Englishman. 

The Governing Commission acts as the cabinet of the 
Saar Basin, which has a population of nearly 800,000. 

France has special rights connected with working the 
mines, which are owned by that country. Since the 
Basin is exclusively a mining district, there is an under- 
lying problem of exercising justice toward both the mining 
regime and the population. In the early days, France 
insured order by its own troops, of which there were 7,977 
on February 1, 1920. 

^ Members of the Governing Commission and the Coun- 
cil for some time pressed for the reduction of this force, 
which was to be replaced by a local gendarmerie. A report 
on the defense of the Saar was eventually made by the 
commission on January 28, 1926, 2 and revised a year later. 3 
The solution of the problem was complicated by the fact 
that the commission is obligated by the treaty to insure 
the working of the mines. Obviously, it could not fulfill 
this assigned duty if the gendarmerie and the miners were 
both agreed on preventing it. France was insistent that 
some provision must be made for uninterrupted com- 
munication. 

1 Official Journal, III, p. 1204-1213. 

2 Ibid., VII, p. 527. 

* Ibid., VIII, p. 599. 

[173] 



174 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

The decision came before the Council in March, 1927, 
with Germany, to which the Saar belonged, as a Member 
of the Council and seriously interested in the decision. 
This difference between France and Germany attracted 
much attention in the press, and the session of March 12, 
1927, was one of the high-lights of the Council's history. 
The decision was to establish a Railway Defense Force of 
800 men, to be provided from the French, British and 
Belgian forces in the adjacent occupied zones of Germany 
on the left bank of the Rhine. Thus, the French "Saar 
garrison" was eliminated, all foreign troops were normally 
removed from the Saar, and in case of need the French 
contribution to the railway defense force was limited. 

German Goods for Local Consumption. For several 
years the uncertain commercial relations between France 
and Germany created a difficult position in the Saar, 
resulting in temporary agreements. The Franco-German 
commercial treaty of August 17, 1927, offered the oppor- 
tunity to transform them into a permanent understanding. 
As the customs frontier between France and the Saar is 
removed and one set up toward Germany, the negotiation 
was both difficult and complicated. An arrangement of 
February 23, 1928, put the commercial relations of the 
Saar on the soundest basis they had yet attained. 

Free City of Danzig 

Par. 1 of Art. 100 of the treaty of peace of Versailles 
provides that Germany shall renounce in favor of the Prin- 
cipal Allied and Associated Powers all rights and titles 
over the City and Territory of Danzig. Art. 102 provides 
that they shall establish Danzig and its territory as a Free 
City to be placed under the protection of the League of 
Nations. Art. 103 provides that a constitution for the 
Free City shall be drawn up by duly appointed represent- 
atives of the Free City in agreement with a high commis- 
sioner x to be appointed by the League, and placed under 

!The high commissioners have been Mervyn Sorley Macdonnell (English), Joost 
A. Van Hamel (Dutch), and Count Manfredi Gravina (Italian), for three years from 
June 22, 1929. 

[174] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 175 

the guaranty of the League. The constitution was ap- 
proved by the high commissioner on May 11, 1922. 1 

The high commissioner is further intrusted with the 
duty of dealing in the first instance with all differences 
arising between Poland and the Free City concerning the 
treaty of Versailles and any supplementary arrangements 
or agreements. 

Art. 104 provides that a treaty, the terms of which are 
to be negotiated by the Principal Allied and Associated 
Powers, shall be concluded between the Polish Govern- 
ment and the Free City in order to assure to Poland the 
exercise of the rights which she derives from this article 
within the territory of the Free City. This treaty of No- 
vember 9, 1920, 2 came into force at the same time as the 
establishment of the Free City, November 15, 1920. 

The guaranty of the Constitution was assumed by the 
Council on November 17, 1920, 3 when the Free City was 
placed under the protection of the League, its defense 
falling to Poland. The Polish-Danzig convention of No- 
vember 9, 1920, was not to be modified without the pre- 
vious assent of the League. 

As to foreign relations the commissioner decided on 
December 17, 1921 : 4 

1. That Poland, when called upon by Danzig to conduct any of the 
foreign relations of the Free City, has the right to refuse the applica- 
tion, if the matter involved is clearly to the detriment of the important 
interests of the Polish state. 

2. That Poland has no right to initiate and impose upon Danzig a 
definite foreign policy which is clearly opposed to the well-being, pros- 
perity and good government of the Free City. Moreover, it is apparent 
from the Polish statement of the case that she has no desire to do so. 

Disarmament. In accordance with the Council's reso- 
lution of November 17, 1920, the following was inserted in 
the Constitution: 

1 Text in Official Journal, Spec. Sup. No. 7. 

2 Treaty Series, VI, p. 189. 

» Minutes of the 11th Session, p. 76. 

* Decisions of the High Commissioner, 1921, p. 72. 

[175 1 



176 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

Article 5. — The Free City of Danzig can not, without the previous 
consent of League of Nations, in each case: 

(1) Serve as a military or naval base; 

(2) Erect fortifications; 

(3) Authorize the manufacture of munitions or war material on its 
territory. 

Under these provisions various questions have arisen. 
The former German Government rifle factory in Danzig 
had been managed by Danzig for the Principal Allied and 
Associated Powers, the temporary owners. In December, 
1920, Danzig requested permission to manufacture 50,000 
rifles for Peru. The Council decided that the League 
could not undertake the responsibility for increasing the 
stock of arms in the world. The Council later decided 
that all manufacture of arms, including sporting rifles, 
must cease immediately, and that the rifle factory must be 
closed down on July 30, 1921. 1 

The Council 2 decided in March, 1924, that the Wester- 
platte Peninsula in the territory of the Free City should 
be placed at the disposal of the Polish Government for the 
purpose of unloading, storing and forwarding to Poland 
war material and explosives in transit. After the com- 
pletion of the works, the Governments of Danzig and 
Poland began negotiations under the chairmanship of the 
High Commissioner, Joost van Hamel, on technical points, 
such as the right of admittance of Danzig authorities to the 
Westerplatte area, the control and supervision of the ob- 
servance of the safety regulations in this area, the manner 
of regulating customs clearance, regulations applicable to 
consignments of war material and explosives leaving the 
Westerplatte area, the definition of "war material" which 
may be transported. The negotiations having failed, the 
High Commissioner, in April, 1927, issued regulations to 
which both the Danzig and Polish Governments raised 
objections. He then asked the Council in a letter dated 
May 30, 1927, to give a final decision on the subject. 

» Official Journal, II, p. 676, 968. 
» Ibid., V, p. 529, 536, 687. 

[176] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 177 

The Council 1 on December 12, 1927, again remitted the 
question to direct negotiation and they settled it by an 
agreement signed August 4, 1928. 

A request from the high commissioner for instructions 
as to applications for permission to convey through Dan- 
zig war material consigned to a country other than Poland 
was referred by the Council to the Permanent Advisory 
Commission on Military, Naval and Air Questions on 
March 7, 1928. A decision of the Council dated June 23, 
1921, 2 prohibited the storage and transport in Danzig of 
war material unless the consent of the Council had been 
obtained. The Council authorized the high commissioner 
to deal, on its behalf, with such requests with a view to 
obtaining the Council's consent to such operations, and 
directed that it be informed of the results of the applica- 
tions. 3 

Relations with Poland. The relations between Poland 
and the Free City have improved with time and they have 
been able to work out an understanding directly between 
themselves on most unsettled points. The Polish-Danzig 
agreement of October 24, 1921, contains 244 articles on 
many different questions, including naturalization in 
Danzig, extradition, postal arrangements, regulations for 
ships, stock exchange transactions, customs, fisheries, 
export and import trade and food supply for Danzig. 
Many other special treaties have been made. 

Such differences, however, as could not be arranged 
directly between the two parties have been, in accordance 
with the treaties, referred to the high commissioner of the 
League. His decisions 4 were numerous in the early years. 
Either or both parties could appeal to the Council and 
this was done regularly, even though, as a rule, the ap- 
peals were withdrawn. The persistence of the parties 
finally led the high commissioner to say at Geneva on De- 

i Official Journal, VIII, p. 801, 1423; IX, p. 181. 

2 Ibid., II, p. 659. 

Ubid., VIII, p. 748. 

♦Obtainable from World Peace Foundation for years 1921-27. 

[177] 



178 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

cember 12, 1924, that "for the first time the Council had 
had nine clear months free of Danzig questions. . . . 
Appeals were made to the Council on every question by one 
side or the other, not only on their merits, but as a matter 
of tactics. ... It was obvious from the remarks and 
feelings of the Council that these methods must be 
stopped." 1 

He asked to submit proposals to reduce the number of 
appeals, being supported by both the Polish and Danzig 
representatives. A report was made to the March, 1925, 
session of the Council 2 and a detailed procedure for the 
future was adopted in June, 1925. The new procedure 
maintains the system of direct negotiations between 
Poland and Danzig, while the high commissioner may 
invite one or both to meet to discuss the issue. In the 
case of technical or legal questions — the majority of those 
brought up — the high commissioner is empowered to take 
the advice of the League's technical organizations or ex- 
perts before giving his decision. Formerly they were 
consulted only after an appeal from a decision had reached 
the Council. The result was to eliminate the political 
element in disputes. 

Questions before Council. The Danzig questions 
brought to the Council have been exceedingly numerous, 
particularly in the first few years. Most of them involved 
minor matters and were more notable for expression of 
differences between the parties than their subjects. 

One which developed quite a history may be cited. The 
Polish Government appealed to the Council against a de- 
cision of the High Commissioner with regard to the Polish 
postal, telegraph and telephone service at Danzig, and 
particularly concerning the installment of postboxes and 
the employment of Polish postmen in the Free City. On 
March 13, 1925, 3 the Council requested an Advisory 
Opinion from the Permanent Court of International Jus- 

i Official Journal, VI, p. 153. 
1 Ibid., p. 562. 
» Ibid., p. 471. 

[ 178 1 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 179 

tice on the question. On May 16, the Court rendered an 
opinion l to the effect that no decision of the High Com- 
missioner covering the controversy was in force and that 
the Polish postal service at Danzig was not restricted to 
operations only within its premises, but that it could set 
up letterboxes for the public and collect and deliver postal 
matter outside those premises. Four experts, appointed 
by the Chairman of the Advisory Committee on Com- 
munications and Transit made a report on the practical 
means of carrying out the Advisory Opinion, which was 
adopted by the Council. This involved laying down 
boundaries of the port, which are subject to revision every 
five years. On the basis of the report, Poland and Danzig 
entered into negotiations and reached agreements upon 
the question at issue and many other subsidiary questions, 
such as currency, language and taxation in the Hevelius- 
platz, which is a Polish section of the port. 2 

The Council appoints various Danzig officials, such as 
the President of the Danzig Port and Waterways Board. 

In recent years, Danzig and Poland have executed a 
great number of treaties defining their relations. Among 
those of special interest may be mentioned that of August 
4, 1928, defining access to and anchorage in the Port of 
Danzig for Polish war vessels. 

11. Progressive Codification of International Law 

The Committee of Jurists appointed by the Council in 
1920 to draft a statute for the Permanent Court of Inter- 
national Justice also reported a resolution of its own dealing 
with the codification of international law. This was re- 
ferred to the First Assembly, but was not adopted by it. 
In the Fifth Assembly, the Swedish delegation called at- 
tention to the annual report showing the position of inter- 
national engagements made under the auspices of the 
League and emphasized its contribution to the develop- 

1 See Publications of the Permanent Court of International Justice, Series B. 
No. 11. 

2 Official Journal, VI, p. 1371. 

[179] 



180 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

ment of international treaty law. 1 It was the League's 
duty, it was said, to organize this process of development 
systematically. 

The Assembly on September 22, 1924, adopted a reso- 
lution requesting the Council to convene a suitable com- 
mittee of experts to prepare a provisional list of the sub- 
jects of international law which were desirable to regulate 
by international agreement and to report which questions 
were sufficiently ripe to warrant calling an international 
conference for their solution. The Council appointed the 
Committee of Experts for the Progressive Codification of 
International Law, December 12, 1924. 2 

The committee has held annual sessions since 1925. At 
its first session it decided to give the word "codification" 
a broad significance and adopted an empirical procedure 
without entering into the problem of abstract codification. 
Its process of work is fixed. Questions are suggested to it 
on its own initiative or that of others. These are assigned 
to members of the committee sitting as subcommittees for 
examination and report, usually taking the form of a draft 
convention preceded by a technical introduction. If a 
question is found suitable, a questionnaire is prepared and 
forwarded to states. Their replies are studied by the 
committee, which then reports to the Council whether a 
given subject is ripe for international regulation. The 
Council passes such questions to the Assembly, which 
determines upon the convening of a conference to reach 
agreement upon them. 

Three questions were advanced to that stage in 1927. 
In order still further to prepare the field, the Assembly 
called for the appointment of a Technical Preparatory 
Committee for the Codification Conference, which ana- 
lyzes each question and determines in detail the informa- 
tion which is to be requested of the States Members and 
non-Members of the League. This information is to con- 
tain precise statements regarding: 

1 Records of the Fifth Assembly, Plenary Meetings, p. 82-83. 

2 Official Journal, VI, p. 275. 

[180] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 181 

The status of the positive law of each state, internal and inter- 
national, with as full details as possible on bibliography and 
jurisprudence; 

Information derived from their practice at home and abroad; 
any views as regards possible additions to the rules in force and 
how to make good existing deficiencies in the international law 
of the subject. 

It is planned to hold the first Codification Conference 
at The Hague. It will be held in 1929, unless the Disarm- 
ament Conference meets in that year; in which case it 
will be held in 1930. In preparation for it Governments 
sent replies by October 31, 1928, to specific points on the 
agenda as follows: 

1. Nationality: the general principle of international law that 
the acquisition and loss of nationality fall solely within the do- 
mestic jurisdiction of each State; double nationality; effects of 
the naturalization of parents on the nationality of minors; nation- 
ality of children of unknown parents; cases of double nationality 
or loss of nationality by a woman as the result of marriage with 
a foreigner; effects of adoption on the nationality of the adopted 
child, etc. 

2. Territorial waters: the nature of the rights possessed by a 
state over its territorial waters; the extent of such rights; the 
position as regards territorial waters around islands; straits; de- 
markation between inland waters and territorial waters; limita- 
tion upon the exercise of the sovereignty of coastal states as regards 
jurisdiction and fiscal questions, foreign warships in territorial 
waters. 

3. Responsibility of States for damages caused on their territory to 
the person or property of foreigners: the legal basis of the interna- 
tional responsibility of states as resulting from acts of a legislative, 
judicial or executive organ; acts of individuals or mobs in riots 
or insurrections; pecuniary reparation or other compensation for 
damages, etc. 

Altogether 21 subjects, including the three advanced to 
the conference stage, have been submitted to the Com- 
mittee of Experts. Their status follows : 



181 



182 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

Ripe for Regulation. Legal position and functions of consuls; 
reserved by Ninth Assembly to a subsequent conference. 

Competence of courts in regard to foreign states; reserved by 
Ninth Assembly to a subsequent conference. 

Procedure of international conference and procedure for the con- 
clusion and drafting of treaties; reserved by the Council, not 
passed to the Eighth Assembly for reference to a conference. 

Suppression of piracy; reserved by the Council, not passed to 
the Eighth Assembly for reference to a conference. 

Diplomatic privileges and immunities; reserved by the Council, 
not passed to the Eighth Assembly for reference to a conference. 

Exploitation of the products of the sea; remitted by the Coun- 
cil to the Economic and other League Committees for special 
examination. 

Not Ripe for Regulation. Classification of diplomatic agents. 

Communication of judicial and extrajudicial acts (letters roga- 
tory in penal matters). 

Application of the notion of prescription in international law. 

Legal status of private international non-profit-making asso- 
ciations. 

Other Questions. Extradition; the Committee of Experts ac- 
cepted a report on this subject that it was not ripe for regulation. l 
However, the Mixed Committee for the Suppression of the Offense 
of Counterfeiting Currency referred the extradition feature of that 
problem to the committee, which found serious reasons in favor 
of its international regulation in that connection. 

Criminal competence of states in respect to offenses committed 
outside their territory; a subcommittee report found that the 
international regulation of the question "would encounter grave 
political and other obstacles." 2 

Legal status of government ships employed in commerce; con- 
sideration of it "might appear superfluous since it is already under 
study by the International Maritime Conference." 3 

The nationality of commercial corporations and their diplomatic 
protection; a subcommittee report concludes that regulation "is 
at the present moment desirable and realizable." 4 

Recognition of the legal personality of foreign commercial corpo- 

i League of Nations, C. 51. M. 28. 1926. V. 8. 
* Ibid., C. 50. M. 27. 1926. V. 7. 
» Ibid., C. 52. M. 29. 1926. V. 9. 
*Ibid., C. 207. M. 81. 1927. V. 12. 



[182] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 183 

rations; already placed on the agenda of the conferences on inter- 
national private law. 1 

Domicile; the questionnaire of the Committee of Experts was 
submitted to governments in June, 1928. 2 

Most-favored-nation clause; the Committee of Experts decided 
that regulation of this question "would encounter serious ob- 
stacles." 3 However, the World Economic Conference dealt with 
it in its final report and the Economic Committee is working upon 
a formula of international application. 

Is it possible to establish, by means of a convention, international 
rules concerning the competence of courts with respect to foreign 
states and especially with respect to states engaging in operations 
of commerce? 

Is it possible to establish, by means of a convention, interna- 
tional regulations on the conflict of law, relative to the contract 
of sale of merchandise? 

The Committee of Experts is undertaking no new studies 
until it has received further instructions from the Council. 
In the 1927 Assembly the Paraguayan delegation sub- 
mitted a proposal for the preparation of a general and 
comprehensive plan for the codification of international 
law. The Committee of Experts in June, 1928, decided to 
continue the method already adopted. The Ninth As- 
sembly, in passing resolutions on the matter of codification, 
recommended "that the Committee of Experts should, 
when it next meets, examine whether it would be possible 
and desirable to endeavor, by the procedure of codifica- 
tion, to formulate a declaration of the fundamental rights 
and duties of states." 

In addition, the Ninth Assembly in a resolution con- 
firmed its decisions to make no change in the method of 
codification adopted in 1924, but recognized "that there 
would be advantages in indicating the full extent of the 
subjects which the Assembly proposes to cover by the 
work of codification." It, therefore, requested the Council 
to intrust to a committee of three jurists the task of es- 

i League of Nations, C 206. M. 80. 1927. V. 11. 
*Ibid., C. 343. M. 101. 1928. V. 3. 
« Ibid., C 205. M. 79. 1927. V. 10. 

[183] 



184 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

tablishing a systematic survey to be communicated to 
Members of the League as soon as possible. It would be 
desirable to distinguish subjects which should be reserved 
(1) for the technical organizations of the League, (2) for 
international conferences already initiated by particular 
Governments and (3) those which appear capable of being 
dealt with by conferences of jurists. 

The Assembly emphasized the important practical value 
in this connection of assembling in the form of a code, 
according to a methodical classification, the various gen- 
eral international conventions opened to acceptance by 
states in general. It, therefore, asked the Council to refer 
to the committee of jurists the question of publishing, "as 
an accompaniment of the Treaty Series and in the form 
of a code of which new editions would be from time to 
time prepared, those general conventions which have the 
above-mentioned character." 

Unification of Private Law 

The International Institute for the Unification of Private 
Law was inaugurated in Rome on May 30, 1928. This 
institute originated in a proposal of the Italian delegation 
to the Assembly of 1924. The Italian Government offered 
to found in Rome such an institute and to grant for its 
upkeep an annual sum of 1,000,000 lire ($52,631). This 
offer was accepted by the Assembly and subsequently by 
the Council; 1 which, after consulting the Committee of 
Experts for the Progressive Codification of International 
Law, the Committee on Intellectual Cooperation and the 
League technical organizations, concluded with the Italian 
Government the necessary agreements for the organization, 
existence and normal working of the Institute. The gen- 
eral principles of these agreements are similar to those 
governing the creation of the Institute of Intellectual Co- 
operation in Paris. The engagements entered into by the 
Italian Government toward the Council of the League 2 

1 Official Journal, V, p. 1376. 

2 Ibid., VII, p. 812. 

[184] 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 185 

were ratified by royal decree of September 3, 1926. As 
premises for the institute the Italian Government decided 
to offer the Villa Aldobrandini. The Institute is under 
the direction of a Governing Body composed of an Italian 
president and 14 members of different nationalities. On 
March 12, 1927, the Council appointed Vittorio Scialoja 
as president of the Governing Body. 

"The object of the Institute is to study methods for 
the assimilation and coordination of private law as be- 
tween states or groups of states, and to prepare for a 
gradual adoption by the various states of uniform private 
law legislation " (Art. 2 of Statutes). 

Pietro de Francisci, professor of the history of Roman 
law at the University of Rome, was appointed secretary- 
general of the institute at the first meeting of the Governing 
Body. 



[185 



IV. ACHIEVEMENT OF PEACE AND SECURITY 
1. Reduction of Armament 

"The Members of the League recognize that the main- 
tenance of peace requires the reduction of national arma- 
ments to the lowest point consistent with national safety 
and the enforcement by common action of international 
obligations. 

"The Council, taking account of the geographical situ- 
ation and circumstances of each state, shall formulate 
plans for such reduction for the consideration and action 
of the several Governments. 

"Such plans shall be subject to reconsideration and re- 
vision at least every 10 years. 

"After these plans shall have been adopted by the 
several Governments, the limits of armaments therein 
fixed shall not be exceeded without the concurrence of the 
Council" {Covenant, Art. 8). 

Effort to make the prescribed agreement upon the re- 
duction and limitation of armament has been continuous 
since 1920, but through 1928 had led to no general result. 
The point of view of the Members of the League had, how- 
ever, undergone several important changes. They felt 
that the new approach to the problem had offered improved 
prospects of success in the near future. 

In 1920 when the League began to function, states felt 
that the maintenance of armament was one of the most 
sacred functions of their independence. In the First 
Assembly they insisted, however, that the problem of re- 
duction should be intrusted to the Temporary Mixed Com- 
mission so as to take it out of the hands of strictly military 
experts. In 1921, the Assembly urged this commission to 
make proposals in the form of a draft treaty. 1 The com- 
mission found that a feeling of insecurity was the chief 

1 Resolutions and Recommendations of the Assembly . . . 1921, p. 23. 

f 186 1 



ACHIEVEMENT OF PEACE AND SECURITY 187 

bar to reduction of armament. The Assembly in 1922 
emphasized this thought in extensive resolutions, one of 
which — known as Resolution XIV — added that "moral 
disarmament is an essential preliminary condition of 
material disarmament, and that this moral disarmament 
can only be achieved in an atmosphere of mutual con- 
fidence and security." 1 

In 1923, the Temporary Mixed Commission reported a 
draft treaty of mutual assistance to the Assembly, in 
which the third committee, as a conference, perfected the 
text for submission to Governments. Eighteen states 
approved it in principle, 2 but various criticisms were 
leveled against it, one of which was that it did not take 
into sufficient account existing machinery for the pacific 
settlement of international disputes. 

Premiers Edouard Herriot of France and J. Ramsay 
MacDonald of Great Britain attended the opening sessions 
of the Assembly in 1924 as heads of their delegations. 
They were fresh from the London Conference on Repara- 
tions, at which the Experts' (Dawes) Plan was brought 
into force and smooth working order by provisions for 
the establishment of 19 separate arbitral jurisdictions. 3 
As a result of their Assembly speeches, a resolution re- 
quested the First and Third Committees to examine the 
obligations of the Covenant "in relation to the guaranties 
of security which a resort to arbitration and a reduction of 
armaments may require." The result was the well-known 
Geneva Protocol for the Pacific Settlement of International 
Disputes, opened for signature October 2, 1924. This 
agreement was built on the basic conception that "there 
can be no arbitration or security without disarmament, 
nor can there be disarmament without arbitration and 
security." 4 Its first aim was to supply a system of pacific 

1 Resolutions and Recommendations of the Assembly . . . 1922, p. 27. 

2 Records of the Fifth Assembly, Minutes of the Committees, Minutes of the Third 
Committee, p. 129. 

« World Peace Foundation Pamphlets, Vol. VIII, p. 314. 

* Records of the Fifth Assembly, Minutes of the Committees, Minutes of the Third 
Committee, p. 212. 

[187] 



188 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

settlement, made complete by closing the legal "fissures 
in the Covenant," and secondly to provide for the general 
disarmament conference which, it was planned, could be 
held in 1925. 

The British Government, under Premier Baldwin, held 
up the preparations for this conference, and its representa- 
tive in the Council on March 12, 1925, declared himself 
against the principles of the protocol. 1 His essential decla- 
ration was that the real problem of confidence was not to 
be solved by a general agreement but by agreements on 
certain "extreme cases" of "brooding fears that keep 
huge armaments in being." The best way of dealing 
with these, he said, "is, with the cooperation of the League, 
to supplement the Covenant by making special arrange- 
ments in order to meet special needs." 

In February, 1925, Germany made the proposal that 
led to the Locarno Conference. The Locarno treaty of 
guaranty neutralizes the Rhine frontier, the principal of 
the "extreme cases." The other treaties resulting from 
the Conference provide for a complete system of pacific 
settlement between the parties concerned. This system 
was made completely effective by the admission of Ger- 
many to the League and by the entrance of the treaties 
into force in September, 1926. 2 The Locarno principles 
then became a new starting point. 

The early development of League policy respecting 
armament has, therefore, been based upon recognition of 
the fact that war occurs only as the result of disputes, for 
which there are but two methods of settlement: By arma- 
ments or peaceful means. Since 1926, the whole explora- 
tion of the subject has emphasized the pacific means of 
settling disputes in the belief that their development re- 
duces the necessity for armament. 

In this connection extensive re-examinations of the means 
of pacific settlement afforded by the Covenant itself 
have been made. A French proposal to the Preparatory 

1 Official Journal, VI, p. 124, 446. 

2 Treaty Series, LIV, p. 289-363. 

f 188 1 



ACHIEVEMENT OF PEACE AND SECURITY 



189 



Commission in 1926 requested investigation of methods 
which would ''enable the Council to take such decisions 
as may be necessary to enforce the objects of the Covenant 
as expeditiously as possible." A committee of the Council 
drew up a report which was approved by the Assembly in 
1926 and which lays down details of procedure under 
Art. 11 of the Covenant. 1 

The Committee on Arbitration and Security brought 
into the Ninth Assembly in 1928 elaborate reports on the 
operation of Arts. 10, 11 and 16 of the Covenant. 2 

Since 1926, pursuit of the solution of the armament 
problem has advanced along two main lines: (1) Prepara- 
tion for a conference to reduce and limit armament in a 
technical sense, and (2) development of the system of 
pacific settlement with a view to solving the problem of 
security. 

Committees at Work 

Temporary Mixed Commission. The First Assembly in 
1920 passed a resolution inviting the Council "to instruct 
a temporary commission composed of persons possessing 
the requisite competence in matters of a political, social 
and economic nature to prepare . . . reports and proposals 
tor the reduction of armaments as provided for by Art 8 
of the Covenant." The Temporary Mixed Commission 
tor the Reduction of Armaments, with the addition of 
seven civilian members in 1922, functioned until after the 
Fifth Assembly in 1924. 

Coordination Commission. The Coordination Commis- 
sion succeeded it and continues to exist. This consists of 
the active Committee of the Council 3 — the Council act- 
ing as a committee — and of what is separately called the 
Joint Commission to advise the Preparatory Commission 
on the economic aspect of questions. It consists of two 
members each of the Economic, Financial and Transit 

and SS5SS rx n P P i2s 21: c ° mpare ° mal Journal > Spec - Supp - No - 53 ' * 23 

2 League of Nations, A. 20, 1928. IX, 9. 
* Official Journal, V, p. 1380. 

[189] 



190 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

Organizations, two members of the Employers' Group and 
two members of the Workers' Group of the Governing 
Body of the International Labor Office, and four members 
competent to deal with questions connected with industry 
and transport. 1 

The Permanent Advisory Commission on Armaments is 
provided for in Art. 9 of the Covenant and was set up by 
the Council on May 9, 1920. It is made up of military, 
naval and air officers representing the Governments 
members of the Council. The commission is divided into 
three subcommissions, one expert in each branch of arma- 
ment, and its primary duty is to advise the Council on 
technical matters. It sits as Subcommission A of the 
Preparatory Commission with additional members. 2 

The Preparatory Commission for the Disarmament 
Conference was established by the Council September 26, 
1925, and is composed of : 3 

(a) Representatives of states members of the Council; 

(b) Representatives of countries chosen among those 
which, by reason of their geographical situation, occupy a 
special position as regards the problem of disarmament 
and which are not otherwise represented on the commis- 
sion ; . . 

(c) Any state not represented on the commission to 
submit memoranda and to be heard on them; 

(d) States members of the Council since 1925, the 
Soviet Union, Turkey and the United States. 

Preparation for Conference 
The Preparatory Commission for the Disarmament Con- 
ference began work in May, 1926, on the basis of finding 
replies to a series of seven elaborate questions drawn up 
by the Council on December 12, 1925, 4 which summarized 
the study given to the subject in the previous six years. 

i Official Journal, VII, p. 166, 534. 
2 Ibid., p. 633, 535. 
s Ibid., p. 164, 1403. 
*Ibid., p. 168. 

[190] 



ACHIEVEMENT OF PEACE AND SECURITY 191 

Several points were added in the commission and have 
given rise to subsidiary investigations. 

By the end of 1926 the subcommissions had worked up 
replies x and in March, 1927, the commission itself was 
able to make from this most impressively complicated 
series of answers and counter suggestions a synoptic 
analysis for further negotiation. 

One of the subjects resulting in a fundamental difference 
was that of the principle by which to limit naval cruiser 
tonnage. Some states wanted a total tonnage fixed with- 
out specifying vessel size ; others wanted the size of vessels 
fixed and the total tonnage determined. The United 
States attempted to solve this difficulty by inviting certain 
states to a Conference for the Limitation of Naval Arma- 
ments at Geneva, June 20-August 4, 1927. Great Britain 
and Japan attended officially, but it came to no conclu- 
sion because the United States and Great Britain were 
unable to compromise their views on respective require- 
ments. 

When the Preparatory Commission met the third time 
in March, 1927, it studed preliminary drafts of a conven- 
tion 2 and, with many questions still unsettled, passed a 
draft convention on first reading. 3 To its November, 1927, 
session the Soviet delegation presented a project for com- 
plete and immediate disarmament. 4 This was rejected at 
the session in March, 1928, after a lively debate, 5 but is to 
be submitted in revised form at the next session. 

The draft convention passed at the March meeting had 
served to bring out the fundamental points of disagreement 
between various conceptions of national needs for arma- 
ment. Each great state is confronted by physical cir- 

iSee Report of Subcommission A (C 739. M. 278. 1926. IX. 16); Subcommis- 
sion B. Report No. 1 [Report of the Joint Commission] (C 738. M. 277. 1926 
IX. 15); Committee of the Council (C 740. M. 279. 1926. 1927. IX. 2) and sum- 
mary, Seventh Yearbook, p. 244. 

2 Documents of the Preparatory Commission . . . Series IV, p. 358-382 (C 310. M. 
lu". lyz/. I.X.. 5), 

3 Ibid., p. 383; Official Journal, VIII, p. 861; Monthly Summary, VII, p. 105. 

4 Separate document, C 46. M. 23. 1928. IX. 5. 

« Documents of the Preparatory Commission . . . Series VI, p. 239. (C, 165. M. 
50. 1928, IX, 6.) 

[191] 



192 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

cumstances, peculiar to its situation, which affect its 
armament ideas. The small states in any case do not 
rely on armament. The points of disagreement, therefore, 
did not apply to all negotiators and a solution offered by 
those concerned with any point would probably prove 
acceptable to all others for the sake of making progress. 
It was that which prompted the American delegate in 
March, 1928, to ask: * "Have we or have we not by direct 
negotiation 2 or in any other way achieved a sufficient 
basis of agreement?" The answer was in the negative, 
so that the commission adjourned without putting the 
draft convention to a second reading. 

Meantime the Briand-Kellogg pact for the renunciation 
of war was under negotiation and its signing on August 27, 
1928, at Paris — along with the simultaneous work of the 
Commission on Arbitration and Security — was changing 
the political conditions in which the armament problem 
was envisaged. For the fourth time in the Ninth As- 
sembly the pressure of the small states and Germany was 
exerted to hasten their desire for the reduction of armament 
to increase their own security. The Assembly urged the 
differing Governments to seek "agreed solutions" without 
delay so that the work could succeed. It further called 
on the president of the Preparatory Commission to "keep 
in contact with the Governments concerned so that he 
may be apprized of the progress of their negotiations" 
and could call the next session early in 1929. 

Other Decisions 

The Covenant provides for several reforms in regard to 
armament in addition to reduction. Action has been taken 
on these phases of the problem. 

Interchange of Information. The Members of the 
League undertook in Art. 8 of the Covenant "to inter- 

i Documents of the Preparatory Commission . . . Series VI, p. 278. (C 165. M. 
50. 1928. IX. 6). . . 

2 The principal incident of direct negotiation was that between Great Britain and 
France resulting in what the newspapers called the Anglo-French accord on the cruiser 
problem and military service. The rejection of its naval terms by the United States 
left it without a chance of affording a solution to that phase of the problem. 

r 192 1 



ACHIEVEMENT OF PEACE AND SECURITY 193 

change full and frank information as to the scale of their 
armaments, their military, naval and air programs, and 
the condition of such of their industries as are adaptable 
to warlike purposes." The Temporary Mixed Commission 
in 1922 and 1923 published much statistical information 
In July, 1923, the Council, on the basis of the commission's 
investigations, authorized the Secretariat to begin pub- 
lishing a yearbook embodying this information. The re- 
sult of this authorization is the annual publication of the 
Armaments Year-Book ; General and Statistical Information 
Trade in War Materials. An important phase of 
armament reduction is the proper control of international 
trade in war materials. Before the World War certain 
areas in Africa and Asia were subject to such control. 
The treaty of St. Germain of September 10, 1919, aimed 
to bring the previous arrangements up to date, but it was 
never brought into force l owing to the declination of the 
United States to proceed with ratification. The Tempo- 
rary Mixed Commission devoted much time to the question 
and eventually in February, 1924, was able to meet with 
representative of the United States and to draw up a new 
draft convention. The resulting conference was held at 
Geneva, May 4-June 17, 1925, with 45 states represented 
The convention 2 for the supervision of the international 
trade in arms and ammunition and in implements of 
war, signed at Geneva, June 17, 1925, had not entered into 
force on December 31, 1928. The object of the conven- 
tion is to establish a general system of supervision and 
publicity for the international trade in arms, munitions 
and implements of war, and a special system for areas 
where measures of this kind are generally recognized as 
particularly necessary. 

1 Treaty Series, VII, p. 331. 

by 2 Ch?nI U France l^T *" 'T^ ^ P ," '^ The mention has been ratified 
tL * I . Venezuela and acceded to by Liberia, subject to ratification 

The convention has been signed by: Abyssinia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil BriUsh £ 
rlL ga £ a * Cana ? a ' Chile ' Czech °slovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia Finland 
Germany Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Luxemburg Ne herlands' Norwav 

»»S^'5£Sr^ Stat6 ' Si -.^^wed d e S n,tS 

[193] 



194 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

Chap. I defines five categories to which the convention applies 
— arms of exclusive war utility, arms of possible war utility, war- 
ships, aircraft, and other arms. _ 

Chap. II lays down that Governments only shall have the right 
to export or import arms of exclusive war utility. Exceptions are 
contemplated in the case of manufacturers of war material and 
duly authorized rifle clubs or similar associations. Consignments 
for export of arms of war utility must be accompanied by a license 
or declaration of the importing Government and the regular pub- 
lication of statistical returns must be made within two months of 
the close of each quarter. The trade in warships and aircraft is 
subject to publicity regulations only. The trade in other arms is 

free. . 

Chap. Ill defines the system to be applied to special zones. 

These comprise: . 

(a) A land zone consisting of the African Continent, with the 
exception of Egypt, Lybia, Tunisia, Algeria, the Spanish posses- 
sions in North Africa, Abyssinia and the Union of South Ainca, 
together with the territory under its mandate, and of Southern 
Rhodesia. This zone includes the adjacent islands situated within 
100 marine miles from the coast; it includes further the Arabian 
peninsula, Gwadar, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Transjordama and 

(6) A maritime zone, including the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, 
the Persian Gulf, and the Gulf of Oman. _ 

To these zones the export of all arms save warships is forbidden 
unless the contracting party exercising sovereignty, jurisdiction, 
protection or tutelage over the territory is willing to admit the 
articles in question for lawful purposes. 

Chap. IV contains three provisions of a special nature relating 
to Abvssinia, to the reservations which a certain number of coun- 
tries bordering on Russia may wish to make owing to the non- 
adhesion of Russia, and to countries possessing extraterritorial 
jurisdiction in the territory of another state. 

Chap. V lays down that the convention shall not apply to arms 
forwarded to the military forces of the exporting country, wherever 
these forces may be. It is also provided that, in time of war, super- 
vision and publicity, so far as consignment of arms to a belligerent 
is concerned, shall be suspended. 



[ 194 



ACHIEVEMENT OF PEACE AND SECURITY 195 

In the final act the signatories declare that their Gov- 
ernments intend to apply strictly their internal laws and 
regulations to prevent fraudulent commerce in arms, and 
to exchange all information on the subject; they declare 
further that the convention must be considered as an 
important step toward a general system of international 
agreements regarding arms and ammunition and imple- 
ments of war, and that the international aspect of the 
manufacture of arms should receive early consideration by 
the different Governments. 

By the declaration 1 regarding the territory of Ifni, signed 
at Geneva, June 17, 1925, which enters into force with the 
convention, 2 the Spanish Government agrees to the in- 
clusion in the special zones of the territory of Ifni (North 
Africa) and to the application to this territory of the 
system set forth in Chap. Ill of the convention, unless 
and until it notifies the contracting parties of a decision 
to the contrary. 

Chemical Warfare. The protocol 3 for the prohibition 
of the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases 
and of bacteriological methods of warfare, signed at 
Geneva, June 17, 1925, has been in force for certain states 
since April 2, 1927. The protocol enters into force for 
each state on the date of the deposit of its ratification. 4 
m In the protocol contracting states recognize that the use 
in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of 
all analogous liquids, materials or devices, has been justly 
condemned by the general opinion of the civilized world, 
and that prohibition of such use has been made in treaties 
to which the majority of states are parties. With a view 

1 Official Journal, VI, p. 1154. 

has bee^^^fK^-^ 6 /^ 1 ^ and Liberia has acceded - Th * declaration 
Canad T Cm^c/JtTT' ^ stria « , Bel J ium . Brazil. British Empire. Bulgaria. 
Ita?v iJ™ T Czechoslovakia, Denmark. Egypt. Estonia. Finland. France. India. 

tn^^a^tlk^L^^T^T^^ ° f experts in Repori of 

i097 Th v ratifiCati °^ S t and accessions hav e been: France, May 9, 1926; Liberia, April 2 
A^riaT^St iSST 7 8 ' 1928; '^ APrU 3 ' 1928J S ° Viet Ua4 »- *«fl *. W8| 

[195] 



196 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

to the acceptance of this prohibition as a part of inter- 
national law, binding alike the conscience and the practice 
of nations, the contracting states, in so far as they are not 
already parties to treaties prohibiting such use, accept 
this prohibition, agree to extend it to the use of bacterio- 
logical methods of warfare, and agree to be bound as be- 
tween themselves according to the terms of this declaration. 
The high contracting parties further undertake to do all 
in their power to induce other states to adhere to the 
protocol. 

The protocol has been signed by Abyssinia, Belgium, 
Brazil, British Empire, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Czecho- 
slovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Germany, 
Greece, India, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, 
Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Ru- 
mania, Salvador, Serb-Croat-Slovene State, Siam, Spain, 
Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United States and 
Uruguay. # . 

A series of questions respecting chemical wartare has 
been answered and sent to the Preparatory Commission. 

Private Manufacture of Arms. The Members of the 
League by Art. 8, par. 5, of the Covenant "agree that the 
manufacture by private enterprise of munitions and im- 
plements of war is open to grave objections." They lay 
upon the Council the duty "to advise how the evil effects 
attendant upon such manufacture can be prevented, due 
regard being had to the necessities of those Members of 
the League which are not able to manufacture the mu- 
nitions and implements of war necessary for their safety." 
Preliminary investigations were made by the Temporary 
Mixed Commission. After the Conference on Control of 
the Trade in Arms in 1925, the Council transmitted a 
series of questions on private manufacture to states and 
prepared a preliminary draft convention. 1 This draft was 
criticised by Member states, and in March, 1927, 2 a special 
Commission on the Private Manufacture of Arms and 

i Official Journal, VI, p. 554, 220; VII, p. 170. 
* Ibid., VIII, p. 846. 

[196] 



ACHIEVEMENT OF PEACE AND SECURITY 197 

Ammunitions and of Implements of War, consisting of 
representatives of states Members of the Council, tried to 
combine all views in a single draft. It tried again in 
August, 1928, and in November of the same year, both 
the Eighth and Ninth Assemblies having spurred it on 
by the passage of resolutions. The chief difference of 
opinion is whether suppression of arms manufacture 
should be confined to private plants or be reinforced by 
publicity on state manufacture. 

Exercise of Right of Investigation 
The treaties of peace closing the World War contain an 
article 1 in the following terms : 

So long as the present treaty remains in force Germany [Austria Bul- 
garia Hungary] undertakes to give every facility for any investigation 
which the Council of the League of Nations, acting if need be by ma- 
jority vote, may consider necessary. 

^ The Council adopted the scheme of organization with a 
view to the exercise of the right of investigation on Sep- 
tember 27, 1924. 2 

_ Investigation shall "cover such demilitarization of ter- 
ritory as may be laid down in the treaties and any or all 
military, naval and air clauses and particularly: (a) Legis- 
lation such as military laws, budgets; (b) strengths; 
(c) material existing or under construction; (d) training 
for war; (e) new warship construction." Any Member of 
the League may communicate information which, in its 
opinion, calls for exercise by the Council of the right of 
investigation. Any non-Member of the Council, which is 
the neighbor of a state subject to investigation, shall be 
represented in the Permanent Advisory Commission for 
organizing an investigation. Commissions of investigation 
shall be constituted from a list of qualified experts appointed 
by the Governments of: 

» Art. 213 of the treaty of Versailles, Art. 159 of the treaty of St. Germain Art 143 
of the treaty of Trianon, Art. 104 of the treaty of Neuilly. ' 

« Official Journal, V p. 1592, 1658. The document is C 541 (1).M. 189 (1). 1924. 
IX, and is also printed separately. w» w- i«* 

[197] 



198 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

1. States represented on the Council, except those subject to 
the right of investigation; 

2. Signatories of the appropriate treaty of peace which border 
on the state under investigation, and 

3. A representative of a nonsignatory of the treaties of peace. 

Each state furnishes an equal number of experts, and 
the Permanent Advisory Commission will propose the 
exact composition of the commission "according to the 
nature and importance of the investigation." Chairmen 
of commissions will arrange the order of their work and 
shall have full latitude respecting its conduct, provided 
that every local investigation is carried out by at least 
three experts of different nationalities. The commission 
will confine itself to the establishment of facts and may call 
upon the Council for aid and the Permanent Advisory 
Commission for technical advice or assistance^ The 
Council may provide for continuous investigation in de- 
militarized zones. 

The chairmen of commissions forward their reports to 
the Council and the Permanent Advisory Commission 
which will send to the Council a reasoned opinion thereon. 
The Council on March 14, 1925, adopted a resolution 
accepting the report x by jurists and representatives of the 
Permanent Advisory Commission on the ways and means 
of assuring to members of the commissions the complete 
execution of their duties. On June 10, 1925, the Council 2 
decided to address to the Austrian, Bulgarian, German 
and Hungarian Governments a letter expressing its con- 
fidence that, should the occasion arise, the stipulations of 
the peace treaties by which states liable to investigation 
undertook to give every facility to such effect would be 
fully carried out. 

When the scheme of organization was passed in 1924, the 
Secretariat had not received the final report 3 of the mili- 

• i Official Journal, VI, p. 610. 
2 Ibid., p. 863. 

a For the other reports see Official Journal, V, p. 1011; VI, p. 304; but see IX, 
p. 298, 310, 324, 608. 

[198] 



ACHIEVEMENT OF PEACE AND SECURITY 199 

tary commission. The question of investigation was post- 
poned on the agenda of the Council from June, 1925, until 
December, 1926, by which time Germany had become a 
member of it. In the interval, a French proposal for the 
application to the Rhine demilitarized zone x of the right 
had ceased to have a practical bearing because of the en- 
trance into force of the Locarno treaty of guaranty. Both 
the disarmament clauses of the treaties of peace and the 
right of investigation attributed by them to the Council 
were originally directed principally against Germany, in 
which the Interallied Military Commission of Control was 
still functioning after German entrance into the League. 
The Conference of Ambassadors, which had charge of that 
commission, represented the states allied against Germany 
in the World War, in whose interest the control was estab- 
lished. The Council of the League in December, 1926, 
was anxious to inaugurate the impartial system of right of 
investigation in succession to the system of control by 
interested parties. This desire became more pressing and 
appropriate after the admission of Germany to the League. 

The Members of the Council that were represented in 
the Conference of Ambassadors influenced the latter to 
reach decisions early in December, 1926. At Geneva on 
December 12, 1926, representatives of Germany, Belgium, 
France, Great Britain, Italy and Japan — in the course of, 
but outside of, the Council meeting — reached an agree- 
ment based on the fact that of more than a hundred 
questions, dividing them in June, 1925, only two were 
outstanding. They agreed to continue negotiations re- 
specting these, and in any case recorded that the Inter- 
allied Commission of Control would withdraw from Ger- 
many on January 31, 1927. 2 

Meantime, on December 11, 1926, the Council adopted 
explanations of the regulations passed in 1924 and 1925, 
which were intended to make the system more efficient. 3 

* For the other reports see Official Journal, VI, p. 143. The evacuation of the Cob- 
lenz sector occurred by exchange of notes of September 10, 1926 (Treaty Series LXII 
p. 141). 

* For text of the communique' see Seventh Yearbook, Vol. X, p. 260. 

* Official Journal, VIII, p. 162. 

[199] 



200 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

Szent-Gotthard Incident. On January 1, 1928, five 
carloads of machine gun parts were seized by the Austrian 
customs officials on duty at the Szent-Gotthard joint 
Austro-Hungarian frontier station, which is in Hungarian 
territory. The goods were billed as "machine parts," and 
the falsity of the declaration caused widespread comment. 
The Czechoslovak, Rumanian and Serb-Croat-Slovene 
Governments requested an examination of the incident by 
the Council. 

The Council heard those concerned on March 7. 1 It 
then transpired that the machine gun parts had been 
destroyed by the Hungarian officials in conformity with 
the provisions of the Bern railroad convention and be- 
cause, "as long as the preliminary measures have not been 
voted by the Council, the Hungarian Government retains 
entire freedom of action." The Council remitted the 
question to a Committee of Three, who on March 10 con- 
sidered that further information was necessary. The 
Council authorized them to undertake investigations. 
They invited two arms experts to draw up an inventory 
and detailed description of what remained of the machine 
gun parts at Szent-Gotthard. Two other experts on in- 
ternational railroad traffic and customs formalities were 
also called in. The Committee of Three met at The 
Hague, May 5-7 to draw up a report. On June 7, the 
Council provided for preliminary measures in case of 
disputes occurring in the intervals between Council ses- 
sions, 2 as a result of the Hungarian attitude. 

The report of the committee of June 7 on the incident 
itself was inconclusive. The Council regretted that 
Hungary had considered the matter "exclusively from the 
standpoint of railway and customs regulations without 
having found it necessary to concern itself with the ques- 
tion of the final destination of this war material," which 
the committee had been unable to determine. The 
Council emphasized the gravity of the incident "and the 

1 Official Journal, IX, p. 387, documents at p. 545. 

2 Ibid., p. 905. 

[200 ] 



ACHIEVEMENT OF PEACE AND SECURITY 201 

importance it attaches to such incidents not recurring." 
The Hungarian representative had drawn attention to the 
fact that Hungarian action would have been different if 
the convention on the control of trade in arms had been 
in force. The Council in its resolution emphasized the 
importance of early ratification of this document. 1 

2. Arbitration and Security 

Since the 1924 Assembly, attention has been continu- 
ously given to realizing the formula "arbitration, security 
and reduction of armament." The Locarno treaties of 

1925 demonstrated its practical value of insuring "peace 
in one of the most sensitive regions of Europe." 2 In 

1926 all treaties exemplifying the thesis were brought 
together in Arbitration and Security: A Systematic Survey} 
The Assembly that year stated that the principles of con- 
ciliation and arbitration and "security by the mutual 
guaranteeing of states against any unprovoked aggres- 
sion" should "govern the policy of every civilized nation." 

In 1927 the Assembly declared in a resolution: 4 

(1) That all wars of aggression are, and shall always be, prohibited. 

(2) That every pacific means must be employed to settle disputes, of 
every description, which may arise between states; 

The Assembly declares that the states Members of the League are 
under an obligation to conform to these principles. 

The Eighth Assembly also adopted a lengthy resolution 
defining policy on arbitration, security and disarmament. 
The new feature was provision for the Committee on 
Arbitration and Security, whose essential duty is "to con- 
sider, the lines indicated by the commission, the measures 
capable of giving all states the guaranties of arbitration 

1 Official Journal. IX, p. 918. 

2 Resolutions and Recommendations adopted by the Assembly . . . 1926, p. 16. 

« Document C. 34. M. 74. 1926. V. 14. An enlarged and improved second edi- 
tion is C 653. M. 216. 1927. V. 29. 

* Resolutions and Recommendations . . . 1927, p. 22. 

[201] 



202 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

and security necessary to enable them to fix the level of 
their armaments at the lowest possible figures in an inter- 
national disarmament agreement." 1 This committee was 
composed of representatives of all states represented on 
the Preparatory Commission, whether Members or non- 
Members of the League, if the latter desired to sit. 

The Committee on Arbitration and Security submitted 
to the 1928 Assembly a series of reports and draft con- 
ventions, which were perfected by it. The result was a 
multilateral General Act, and three model bilateral con- 
ventions for conciliation, arbitration and judicial settle- 
ment, a model collective treaty of mutual assistance, a 
collective and a bilateral treaty of nonaggression, and a 
model treaty to strengthen the means of preventing war. 2 

General Act 

The object of the General Act is to enable states to adopt 
standard engagements for the pacific settlement of inter- 
national disputes and to avoid the development of alterna- 
tive procedure, which will occur if there is no agreed model. 
Provision for reservations in three categories is made, so 
that general acceptance of the document is possible and 
the systematization of exceptions from jurisdiction ar- 
ranged. The model bilateral conventions offer various 
combinations of conciliation, arbitration and judicial 
settlement suitable for states in different relations with 
each other, but all aimed at building up a network of 
treaties on standard lines, whatever the extent of engage- 
ment taken by the parties. 

On conciliation there already exists a standard estab- 
lished by resolution of the Assembly September 22, 1922, 3 
which is much less definite and detailed than the text 
of 1928. However, the 1922 rules have had an extensive 

i Resolutions and Recommendations . . . 1927, p. 24-25; for commentary see 
Records of the Eighth Assembly. Plenary Meetings, p. 454. or (A. 108. 1927. IX. 11). 

'The texts are in Document C 536. M. 163. 1928. IX. 13 and in Resolutions 
and Recommendations adopted by the Assembly . . . 1928, p. 16-59. 

» Resolutions and Recommendations adopted by the Assembly . . . 1922, p. 9. 

[ 202 1 



ACHIEVEMENT OF PEACE AND SECURITY 203 

effect in providing a basis for many bilateral conventions, 
the commissions under which are recorded with the Sec- 
retariat. 1 

Mutual Assistance and Nonaggression 

The three model conventions on mutual assistance and 
nonaggression are designed for those states desiring them 
and intended to permit the taking of engagements relative 
to security on a single standard and without conflict with 
the Covenant. The principle of them is based on the 
Locarno Rhine pact. The first two articles are the es- 
sential engagement, their substance being that of the 
Locarno treaty and bearing a close similarity to that of 
the Briand-Kellogg pact for renunciation of war. Those 
articles read: 

Art. 1. Each of the high contracting parties undertakes, in regard 
to each of the other parties, not to attack or invade the territory of 
another contracting party, and in no case to resort to war against 
another contracting party. 

This stipulation shall not, however, apply in the case of: 



(1) The exercise of the right of legitimate defense — that is to 
say, resistance to a violation of the undertaking contained in the 
first paragraph; 

(2) Action in pursuance of Art. 16 of the Covenant of the League 
of Nations; 

(3) Action as the result of a decision taken by the Assembly or 
by the Council of the League of Nations or in pursuance of Art. 15, 
par. 7, of the Covenant of the League of Nations, provided that in 
this last event the action is directed against a state which was the 
first to attack. 

Art. 2. Each of the high contracting parties undertakes, in regard 
to each of the others, to submit to a procedure of pacific settlement, 
in the manner provided for in the present treaty, all questions whatso- 
ever on which they may differ and which it has not been possible to 
settle by the normal methods of diplomacy. 

i Official Journal, VI, p. 1684, 1727, and subsequently under the caption " Procedure 
of Conciliation." 



203 



204 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

Assembly Action. After perfecting the seven texts 
briefly described the Ninth Assembly in its resolutions 
invited all states to accept the obligations of pacific settle- 
ment in the General Act because it was "convinced that 
the effective machinery for insuring the peaceful settle- 
ment of international disputes is an essential element in 
the cause of security and disarmament." The good offices 
of the Council are available to bring any negotiations be- 
tween states to a happy issue. 

The Assembly was "convinced that the conclusion be- 
tween states in the same geographical area of treaties of 
nonaggression and mutual assistance providing for con- 
ciliation, arbitration and mutual guaranties against ag- 
gression by any one of them constitutes one of the most 
practical means that can now be recommended to states 
anxious to secure more effective guaranties of security." 
The good offices of the Council are similarly available to 
states in negotiating such treaties. 

Means for War Prevention 

A draft model of a treaty to strengthen the means of 
preventing war was considered by the Ninth Assembly and 
submitted for the consideration of states. This puts in a 
formal text the understandings which have grown up in 
practice with reference to steps taken by the Council when 
an acute matter is before it. The parties would bind 
themselves in advance to comply with recommendations 
of the Council in such a way as not to hinder their ex- 
ecution. 

The Committee on Arbitration and Security examined 
several other phases of the relationship between pacific 
settlement and security. One of these resulted in an ap- 
peal to states to accept the optional clause of the Statute 
of the Permanent Court of International Justice. By 
this clause states bind themselves always to submit dis- 
putes of a legal character to the Court. 

A fruitful study made by the committee on Arts. 10, 11 

[204] 



ACHIEVEMENT OF PEACE AND SECURITY 205 

and 16 of the Covenant brought into prominence "the 
fact that the League's first task is to forestall war, and that 
in all cases of armed conflict or of threats of armed con- 
flict, of whatever nature, it must take action to prevent 
hostilities or to stop hostilities which have already begun." 
The examination of these three articles demonstrated that 
the Covenant offers special guaranties of security which 
should be relied upon to the extent possible. 

3. Pacific Settlement of Disputes 

By Art. 11 of the Covenant it is "declared to be the 
friendly right of each Member of the League to bring to 
the attention of the Assembly or of the Council any cir- 
cumstance whatever affecting international relations which 
threatens to disturb international peace or the good under- 
standing between nations upon which peace depends." 

By Art. 12 "the Members of the League agree that, if 
there should arise between them any dispute likely to lead 
to a rupture, they will submit the matter either to arbi-i 
tration or judicial settlement or to inquiry by the Council." 

Art. 13 deals with the arbitral method; Art. 14 provides 
for the Permanent Court of International Justice, which; 
affords the method of judicial decision, and also provides 
that the Court may give an advisory opinion upon any 
dispute or question referred to it by the Council or by the 
Assembly; Art. 15 deals with the method of inquiry, which 
does not result in a binding decision; and Art. 17 extends 
the whole system by invitation to states non-Members 
of the League. 

The system does not contemplate handling of any dis- 
pute until the resources of the parties respecting its 
settlement are exhausted; that is, direct negotiations are 
recognized as the normal method of adjusting difficulties 
between nations. 

Procedure. Disputes may be brought to the attention 
of the Council by one or more of the states parties to it or 
by a disinterested Member of the League. 

[205] 



206 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

The jurisdiction of the League does not extend to matters 
solely of domestic concern. 

Parties are heard on a footing of equality, their repre- 
sentatives sitting as Members of the Council at any meet- 
ing during the consideration of matters affecting them. 

The representatives of states parties to a dispute, even 
though they are members of the Council, have no vote in 
deciding the dispute. Decisions are unanimous. 1 

When the facts involve a question of law, such as the in- 
terpretation of a treaty or the effect of a decision, the 
Permanent Court of International Justice has in several 
instances been requested to give an advisory opinion upon 
the moot point. 

The Council has made use of committees of jurists and 
of committees of inquiry in connection with disputes 
brought before it. 

The Council has instructed the Secretary General, in 
the case of a request for investigation or of dispute, to in- 
form the parties immediately that, when a question has 
been submitted to the Council, "it is extremely desirable 
that the Governments concerned should take whatever 
steps may be necessary or useful to prevent anything oc- 
curring in their respective territories which might prejudice 
the examination or settlement of the question by the 
Council. " The parties are also requested to reply stating 
the steps which have been taken. 2 

The primary object of the Council is, in the first in- 
stance, by processes of conciliation to secure some definite 
decision which will either solve the difference or advance 
it toward solution. Frequently disputants reach their 
own solution between sessions of the Council, which no 
longer needs to concern itself with the substance of the 
matter. The regular meetings of the Council make it 
easy to repeat this process if the direct efforts of the states 
have not been fruitful. 

1 An advisory opinion of the Court has dealt with unanimity, Publications of the 
Court, Series B, No. 12. 

2 Resolution of June 7, 1928, Official Journal, IX, p. 909-910. 

[206] 



ACHIEVEMENT OF PEACE AND SECURITY 207 



Disputes Handled 

The following notes indicate the variety and results of 
disputes brought before the Council: 

Aaland Islands. On June 19, 1920, the British Govern- 
ment brought the case of the Aaland Islands before the 
Council. The dispute lay between Sweden and Finland, 
which was not yet a Member of the League. The claim 
was made that the question was within the domestic juris- 
diction of Finland. This contention was submitted to a 
commission of jurists, which found it incorrect and held 
that the Council was competent to deal with the question. 
The Council then dispatched a commission of rapporteurs 
to the Aaland Islands, who presented a very full report on 
which the Council based its resolution of June 24, 192 1. 1 
This recognized Finnish sovereignty over the Aaland 
Islands, but stipulated that provisions for nonfortification 
and neutralization of the Archipelago dating from 1856 
were to be maintained and that further guaranties for the 
protection of the islanders should be assured. 

In accordance with the resolution, a regional Baltic con- 
ference relative to the nonfortification and neutralization 
of the Aaland Islands was held October 10-20, 1921, and 
the convention establishing their demilitarization and af- 
fording the requisite protection was signed on behalf of 
the British Empire, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Poland, 
France, Germany, Sweden and Latvia. The convention 
entered into force April 6, 1922. 2 

Poland-Lithuania. On September 5, 1920, Poland ap- 
pealed to the Council to prevent war with Lithuania be- 
cause Lithuanian troops had crossed the provisional 
frontier assigned to Poland. On September 20 before the 
Council both agreed to maintain neutrality, and a modus 
vivendi, including a frontier demarkation, was signed on 
October 7. 3 Meantime, General Zeligowski, whom the 

i Official Journal, I, p. 248, 249. 
2 Treaty Series, IX, p. 212. 
« Ibid., VIII, p. 181. 

[207 1 



208 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

Polish Government declared was acting as a rebel, occu- 
pied the city of Vilna, which had a desire, it was alleged, 
to become Polish. The Council proposed a plebiscite, in- 
trusting its organization to its commission of control, 
which was in the disputed territory. Direct negotiations 
under the presidency of a member of the Council failed 
to bring agreement on two occasions. A neutral zone was 
then established. Zeligowski left Vilna in November, 
1921, but his troops remained. On March 24, 1922, 
Poland annexed Vilna. In May, 1922, Lithuania asked 
the Conference of Ambassadors to fix the frontier line. 
The Council fixed the provisional frontier, in February, 
1923, and on March 15 the Conference of Ambassadors, 
in accordance with the Lithuanian request, fixed a line on 
that basis. Lithuania asked the Fourth Assembly to con- 
sider the matter and withdrew the request at the Fifth 
Assembly in 1924. 

In October, 1927, Lithuania complained to the Council 
against the expulsion by Polish authorities of several per- 
sons from Vilna. Lithuania and Poland, both organized 
after the war, had never established diplomatic relations, 
and great tension existed between them because Lithuania 
was not reconciled to Poland's holding of Vilna. The 
heads of the two Governments came to Geneva in De- 
cember, 1 and the delicate question of their general relations 
was threshed out. Lithuania stated to the Council that 
she "does not consider herself in a state of war with Po- 
land," and Poland recorded that it had no designs against 
Lithuania. On these mutual understandings the two 
Governments were recommended to enter into direct 
negotiations to settle all their difficulties. 2 In March, 
June 3 and September, 1928, the Council heard the parties 
and on each occasion learned that Lithuania had resorted 
to technical objections to delay the diplomatic negotiations, 
which had, therefore, not made much progress. Both 

1 Official Journal, IX, p. 144 
'Ibid., p. 177. 
■ Ibid., p. 885. 

[208 ] 



ACHIEVEMENT OF PEACE AND SECURITY 209 

parties, however, admitted their duties toward the Council, 
which in September passed a resolution to place Polish- 
Lithuanian relations in general on its agenda, thus fore- 
casting an examination by the Council of the political dif- 
ferences and tension between the parties. In December 
Lithuania assented to the League's technical organization's 
examining the questions at issue. 

Albania. In June, 1921, Albania alleged to the Council 
that Greek and Serb-Croat-Slovene troops were in its 
territory. A little later, when the Conference of Ambassa- 
dors was fixing the frontier, it requested the Council to 
appoint a commission to report on the execution of its 
decision. In November, 1921, press reports stated that 
Serbian forces were advancing into Albania. Great 
Britain brought that fact before the Council on the ground 
that a plan was on foot to detach part of Albania. While 
the Council was in session on that appeal, the decision of 
the Conference of Ambassadors as to the Albanian frontiers 
was issued. The League commission was maintained in 
Albania until 1923 in order to guide the first steps of the 
new Government. 1 

Eastern Carelia. In November, 1921, disorder broke 
out in Eastern Carelia, which was granted a form of 
autonomy under the treaty of peace 2 between Finland and 
Russia. Finland brought the matter before the Council, 
but the Soviet Union claimed it was a domestic matter. 
The Council referred this question to the Permanent Court 
for an advisory opinion, which the Court declined to 
render because the Soviet Union refused to appear. The 
Council did not pursue examination of the question for 
the same reason, nor did Finland subsequently complain 
of the treatment of the inhabitants of Eastern Carelia. 

Jaworzina Frontier. The Czechoslovak-Polish frontier 
in the Jaworzina region was fixed by a decision of the 
Conference of Ambassadors on July 28, 1920. The de- 
limitation commission laid down a modified line to which 

i Official Journal V, p. 546, 843, 924, 1017, 1298. 
2 Treat:- Series, III, p. 6. 

[209] 



210 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

Czechoslovakia protested, and the difficulty thus created 
was referred to the Council. The question hinged on the 
finality of the 1920 decision, a legal matter on which the 
Permanent Court was asked for an advisory opinion. 
On that basis the Council made a recommendation, and 
the Conference of Ambassadors again asked it to recom- 
mend a definitive line, which it did acceptably. The ter- 
ritory in dispute was established as the international 
game reserve of Tatra by the parties. 

Iraq Boundary. The treaty of peace with Turkey, 
signed at Lausanne July 24, 1923, 1 provided that the 
frontier between Turkey and Iraq was to be laid down by 
agreement between Turkey and Great Britain. If this 
was not done in nine months, it was to be referred to the 
Council of the League, to which it was brought in 1924. 
A commission of inquiry was dispatched to look over the 
ground, the Council fixing a provisional line in the inter- 
val. 2 In September, 1925, the Council resumed examina- 
tion of the question, which was extensively argued. 3 A 
point as to the voting procedure in taking the decision was 
referred to the Permanent Court for an advisory opinion. 
The Council thus had a basis for reaching a final decision 
without the votes of the disputants counting, and it ren- 
dered a decision which ran the boundary line through the 
Mosul district (which contains oil) on December 16, 
1925. This line was made definitive by the Council on 
March 11, 1926. Subsequent negotiations between Great 
Britain and Turkey resulted in a small cession to Turkey 
and the completion of an agreement fixing the final line. 4 

Upper Silesia. A plebiscite in the valuable mining 
district of Upper Silesia resulted in a vote that made the 
territory look like a German-Polish checkerboard. It fell 
to the Supreme Council of the Allied Powers to draw the 
boundary line determined by the plebiscite. They re- 

1 Treaty Series, XXVIII, p. 17. 

2 Official Journal. V, p. 1659. 
» Ibid., VI, p. 1310-1439. 

* Ibid., VII. p. 858. 

[210] 



ACHIEVEMENT OF PEACE AND SECURITY 211 

ferred the problem to the League, and the Council decided 
that, since the plebiscite area was an industrial unit, a 
transitional regime, which would preserve the economic 
life of the district, was necessary. The Conference of 
Ambassadors adopted these recommendations on October 
20, 1921, and German-Polish negotiators met at Geneva, 
under the presidency of a Council appointee, to elaborate 
the very detailed system for the administration of Upper 
Silesia as an economic whole for a period of 15 years. 
The German-Polish convention was signed on May 15, 
1922, 1 and entered into force on June 3, 1922. 

Greece-Italy. The Italian member of a commission of 
the Conference of Ambassadors, which was fixing the 
boundary between Albania and Greece, was murdered on 
the Greek side of the border on August 27, 1923. Italy 
made demands for amends in a 24-hour ultimatum, which 
included a stipulation to pay an indemnity of 50,000,000 
lire. The Greek reply did not accept all of the demands, 
including that one, whereat the Italian naval vessels oc- 
cupied the Greek island of Corfu at the mouth of the 
Adriatic Sea, after a bombardment in which some 20 
refugee children lost their lives. On September 1, Greece 
appealed to the Council under Arts. 12 and 15 of the 
Covenant. The Italian representative claimed that the 
question was one for the Conference of Ambassadors; but 
the Assembly, which was in session, was decidedly, though 
informally, of the opinion that the League had a responsi- 
bility in the affair. On September 6, the Council discussed 
proposed terms of settlement, but on the objection of the 
Italian representative failed to pass them. The proposals 
were then rushed to Paris for the information of the Con- 
ference of Ambassadors, which on September 7 substan- 
tially adopted them. This decision was accepted by both 
Greece and Italy. Inquiry on the ground failed to prove 
that Greece was guiltless of the murder, and the Confer- 
ence of Ambassadors on September 25 awarded to Italy 
the indemnity originally claimed by her. Meantime, Italy 

1 The Convent ion germano-polonatse is published separately. 
[211] 



212 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

had voluntarily announced an intention to evacuate Corfu 
on September 27 and did so. In a political sense this 
last action was of importance, because in the past such 
instances had frequently led to forced cessions of territory. 

Memel. The Conference of Ambassadors was intrusted 
by the treaty of Versailles with finally disposing of the 
territory of Memel. Lithuania was unwilling to accept 
the terms for its transfer, and the question of bringing 
about an agreement was referred to the Council. It ap- 
pointed a commission that worked out a convention, 
signed at Paris, May 18, 1924, by which the British Em- 
pire, France, Italy and Japan transferred Memel to Lithu- 
ania. 1 

Any infraction of the convention may be brought before 
the Council. On June 9, 1926, a memorandum from the 
Diet of Memel alleging violation by Lithuania of the 
Memel convention came before the Council. Lithuania 2 
contested the form of procedure adopted for hearing such 
complaints. 3 A committee of jurists decided that the 
complaint was not convincing as to the existence of in- 
fractions. Accordingly, Great Britain, France, Italy and 
Japan withdrew their complaint. 4 

Bulgaria-Greece. On October 22, 1925, the Bulgarian 
minister of foreign affairs telegraphed to the Secretary- 
General that, as a result of a border fight between sentries, 
Greek troops had been ordered to advance into Bulgarian 
territory and were about five miles over the line. He ap- 
pealed to the League 6 under Art. 11, par. 1, of the Cove- 
nant, by which it is the duty of the Secretary-General to 
"forthwith summon a meeting of the Council." The 
Council met at Paris, October 26 at 6 p.m., one member 
arriving by airplane. 

After statements by the Bulgarian and Greek repre- 

1 Treaty Series, XXIX. p. 85. 

2 Official Journal, VII, p. 1273. 
8 Ibid., VI, p. 1395. 

* Ibid., VII, p. 1407-1424. 

* Ibid., VI, p. 1696. 

[212] 



ACHIEVEMENT OF PEACE AND SECURITY 213 

sentatives, they were brought to associate with the Council 
in calling upon the two Governments to give uncondi- 
tional orders for their troops to withdraw behind their 
respective frontiers within 24 hours, and to accomplish 
that within 60 hours. 1 This was accomplished, and other 
phases of the difficulty were discussed until October 29, 
when the Council appointed a commission to investigate 
on the spot. Both parties agreed in advance to accept 
the decisions of the Council. 

The report came before the Council on December 7 and 
involved a payment of 30,000,000 levas ($210,000) by 
Greece to Bulgaria for damage done, and this was duly 
paid. The report brought out the great danger to peace 
due to soldiers being continuously in close juxtaposition 
along a border where tension and the disorder of Bulgarian 
comitajis existed. The Council recommended that two 
Swedish officers should be attached to the Greek and 
Bulgarian forces to settle any disputes arising between the 
border forces, a neutral president to be added in case a 
question arose. As disorder has not occurred, no president 
has been appointed. 

The report called attention to the fact that the Greek 
order to suspend operations reached the scene of action 
only two hours and a half before the attack was timed to 
begin. The conclusion was that a state of hostilities was 
narrowly averted by the prompt action of the Council. 
This circumstance has since led to extensive investigations 
as to the means of insuring the prompt meeting of the 
Council in case of emergency and of speeding up any 
emergency messages it might have occasion to send. 2 

Hungary-Rumania. Certain Hungarian optants, af- 
fected by the Council's minorities decision of 1923 3 brought 
their case before the Mixed Rumanian and Hungarian 
Arbitral Tribunal established by Art. 239 of the treaty of 
Trianon. Rumania withdrew its arbitrator. By the 

i Official Journal, VI. p. 1699. 
* Ibid., VIII, p. 226, 1280 ff. 
» See p. 165. 

[213] 



214 WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 

treaty, the Council may appoint arbitrators on those tri- 
bunals. Rumania made a statement to the Council on 
March 8, 1927/ Hungary also presenting its side. A 
Committee of the Council, having failed to bring the parties 
together, the conclusions of a committee of jurists on the 
legal aspects of the question was presented to the dispu- 
tants. Rumania accepted this report, but Hungary did not, 
proposing that the Council request an advisory opinion of 
the Permanent Court as to whether the Mixed Arbitral 
Tribunal had exceeded its powers. Direct negotiations 
failed in September, 1927, and March, 1928. In August, 
1928, however, the two parties had been brought to a 
point where negotiations were resumed, and when the 
Council met in December, 1928, these were still under way. 

1 Official Journal, VIII, p. 350, 1379, 1411. 



214 



MEETINGS 



215 



MEETINGS OF REGULAR ORGANS AND 
COMMITTEES 



Assembly 



1. Nov. 15-Dec. 15, 1920. Presi- 
dent, M. Hymans of Belgium. 
Representatives of 41 Mem- 
ber states present. 

2. Sept. 5-Oct. 5, 1921. Presi- 
dent, Jonkheer van Karne- 
beek of The Netherlands. 
Representatives of 45 Member 
states present. 

3. Sept. 4-30, 1922. President, 
Agustfn Edwards of Chile. 
Representatives of 46 Member 
states present. 

4. Sept. 3-29, 1923. President, 
Cosme de la Torriente y Per- 
aza of Cuba. Representatives 
of 49 Member states present. 

5. Sept. 1-Oct. 3, 1924. Presi- 
dent, Giuseppe Motta of 
Switzerland. Representatives 
of 51 Member states present. 

6. Sept. 7-26, 1925. President, 
Raoul Dandurand of Canada. 



Representatives of 49 Member 
states present. 
Special Session. Mar. 8-17, 1926. 
President, Affonso Augusto 
da Costa of Portugal. Rep- 
resentatives of 48 Member 
states present. 

7. Sept. 6-25, 1926. President, 
Momchilo Ninchich of the 
Serb-Croat-Slovene State. 
Representatives of 49 states 
present. 

8. Sept. 5-27, 1927. President, 
Alberto Guani of Uruguay. 
Representatives of 49 states 
present. 

9. Sept. 3-26, 1928. President, 
Herluf Zahle of Denmark. 
Representatives of 50 states 
present. 

10. Sept. 2- , 1929. 



Council 



1. Paris, Jan. 16, 1920. 

2. London, Feb. 11-13, 1920. 

3. Paris, March 12-13, 1920. 

4. Paris, April 9-11, 1920. 

5. Rome, May 14-19, 1920. 

6. London, June 14-16, 1920. 

7. London, July 9-12, 1920. 

8. San Sebastian, July 30-Aug. 5, 
1920. 

9. Paris, Sept. 16-20, 1920. 

10. Brussels, Oct. 20-28, 1920. 

11. Geneva, Nov. 15-Dec. 18, 
1920. 

12. Paris, Feb. 21-March 4, 1921. 

13. Geneva, June 17-28, 1921. 



14. Geneva, Aug. 20-Oct. 12. 
1921. 

Extraordinary. Geneva, Aug. 29- 
Oct. 12, 1921. 

15. Paris, Nov. 16-19, 1921. 

16. Geneva, Jan. 10-14, 1922. 

17. Paris, March 24-28, 1922. 

18. Geneva, May 11-17, 1922. 

19. London, July 17-24, 1922. 

20. Geneva, Aug. 31-Oct. 4, 1922 
("A" mandate). 

21. Geneva, Aug. 31-Oct. 4, 1922. 

22. Geneva, Aug. 31-Oct. 4, 1922 
(Austria). 

23. Paris, Jan. 29-Feb. 3, 1923. 



[215 



216 



WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 



24. Geneva, April 17-23, 1923. 

25. Geneva, July 2-7, 1923. 

26. Geneva, Aug. 31-Sept. 29, 
1923. 

27. Paris, Dec. 10-21, 1923. 

28. Geneva, March 10-15, 1924. 

29. Geneva, June 11-17, 1924. 

30. Geneva, Aug. 29-Oct. 3, 1924. 

31. Brussels, Oct. 27-31, 1924. 

32. Rome, Dec. 8-13, 1924. 

33. Geneva, March 9-14, 1925. 

34. Geneva, June 8-13, 1925. 

35. Geneva, Sept. 2-28, 1925. 

36. (Extraordinary.) Paris, Oct. 
26-30, 1925. (Greco-Bulga- 
rian incident.) 

37. Geneva, Dec. 7-16, 1925. 



38. Geneva, 



39. 
40. 
41. 

42. 
43. 



Geneva, 
Geneva, 
Geneva, 
Geneva, 
Geneva, 

44. Geneva, 

45. Geneva, 

46. Geneva, 

47. Geneva, 

48. Geneva, 

49. Geneva, 

50. Geneva, 

51. Geneva, 
1928. 

52. Geneva, 

53. Lugano, 



Feb. 12, 1926. 1 
March 8-18, 1926. 
June 7-10, 1926. 
Sept. 2-7, 1926. 
Sept. 16-20, 1926. 2 
Dec. 6-11, 1926. 
March 7-12, 1927. 
June 13-17, 1927. 
Sept. 1-15, 1927. 
Sept. 17-28, 1927. 2 
Dec. 5-12, 1927. 
March 5-10, 1928. 
June 4-9, 1928. 
Aug. 30-Sept. 8, 

Sept. 12-26, 1928. 2 
Dec. 10-15, 1928. 



Permanent Advisory Commission on Armaments 



1. San Sebastian, Aug. 3-5, 1920. 

2. Brussels, Oct. 12-28, 1920. 

3. Geneva, Nov. 25-Dec. 4, 1920 
(during Assembly). 

4. Paris, Feb. 25-March 1, 1921. 

5. Geneva, June 21-27, 1921. 

6. Geneva, Sept. 6-24, 1921 (dur- 
ing Assembly). 

7. Geneva, May 12-17, 1922. 

8. Geneva, Aug. 30-Sept. 7, 1922 
(during Assembly). 

9. Geneva, Dec. 5-8, 1922. 

10. Geneva, April 16-23, 1923. 

11. Geneva, July 5-7, 1923. 



12. Geneva, Sept. 4-6, 1923 (dur- 
ing Assembly). 

13. Geneva, Feb. 6-7, 1924 (with 
Temporary Mixed Commis- 
sion). 

14. Paris, May 12-20, 1924. 

15. Geneva, Aug. 28-Sept. 27, 
1924 (during Assembly). 

16. Geneva, Nov. 12-14, 1924. 

17. Geneva, Feb. 5-10, 1925. 

18. Geneva, June 8-9, 1925. 

19. Geneva, March 9, 1926. 

20. Geneva, April 6, 1927. 



Temporary Mixed Commission for the Reduction of Armaments 



1. Paris, July 16-19, 1921. 

2. Geneva, Sept. 1-3, 1921 (dur- 
ing Assembly). 

3. Paris, Feb. 20-24, 1922. 

4. Paris, July 3-7, 1922. 

5. Geneva, Sept. 1-6, 1922 (dur- 
ing Assembly). 



6. Geneva, Feb. 9-12, 1923. 

7. Geneva, June 4-8, 1923. 

8. Paris, Aug. 3-8, 1923. 

9. Geneva, Feb. 4-8, 1924. 
10. Geneva, July 71-2, 1924. 



1 To convoke Special Session of the assembly. 
* Meeting after reorganization of membership. 

[216] 



MEETINGS 217 



Preparatory Commission for the Disarmament Conference 

1. Geneva, May 18-26, 1926. 4. Geneva, Nov. 30-Dec. 3, 

2. Geneva, Sept. 22-27, 1926. 1927. 

3. Geneva, March 21-April 26, 5. Geneva, March 15-24, 1928. 
1927. 

Committee on Arbitration and Security 

1. Geneva, Dec. 1-3, 1927. 

Rapporteurs: Prague, Jan. 26, 1928. 

2. Geneva, Feb. 20-March 7, 1928. 

3. Geneva, June 27-July 4, 1928. 

Committee of Experts on the Private Manufacture of Arms, etc. 

1. Prague, April 26-29, 1924. 4. Paris, April 21, 1925. 

2. Geneva, July 8, 1924. 5. Paris, April 12-16, 1926. 

3. Geneva, Feb. 19, 1925. 6. Paris, July 30-31, 1926. 

Special Commission to Prepare a Draft Convention on Private 
Manufacture of Arms, etc. 

1. Geneva, March 14-April 25, 1927. 

2. Geneva, Aug. 27-30, 1928. 

3. Geneva, Dec. 4-8, 1928. 

Financial Committee 

1. Geneva, Nov. 23-Dec. 1, 17. Geneva, Feb. 6-13, 1925. 

1920. 18. Geneva, June 4-8, 1925. 

2. London, Feb. 24-28, 1921. 19. Geneva, Sept. 2-9, 1925. 

3. Paris, March 28-31, 1921. 20. Geneva, Dec. 3-8, 1925. 

4. London, May 23-31, 1921. 21. Geneva, March 5-8, 1926. 

5. Geneva, Aug. 31-Sept. 8, 22. Geneva, June 3-9, 1926. 

1921. 23. London, July 19-23, 1926. 

6. London, Feb. 23-March 1, 24. Geneva, Sept. 2-9, 1926. 

1922. 25. Geneva, Dec. 2-8, 1926. 

7. Geneva, June 6-9, 1922. 26. Geneva, March 2-9, 1927. 

8. Geneva, Sept. 4-8, 1922. 27. Geneva, June 8-14, 1927. 

9. Geneva, Sept. 9-Oct. 3, 1922. 28. Geneva, Sept. 1-7, 1927. 

10. Geneva, June 21-24, 1923. 29. Geneva, Nov. 29-Dec. 7, 1927. 

11. Geneva, Aug. 31-Sept. 5, 30. Geneva, Feb. 27-March 7, 

1923. 1928. 

12. London, Nov. 20-28, 1923. 31. Geneva, May 30-June4, 1928. 

13. Paris, Dec. 12-20, 1923. 32. Geneva, Aug. 30-Sept. 5, 
14". London, Jan. 18-22, 1924. 1928. 

15. Geneva, June 11-17, 1924. 33. Geneva, Dec. 4-8, 1928. # 

16. Geneva, Sept. 9-15, 1924. 

[217] 



218 



WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 



Consultative Economic Committee 
1. Geneva, May 14-19, 1928. 

Economic Committee 



1. 


Geneva, Nov. 30-Dec. 6, 


15. 


Geneva, May 26-June 3, 1925 




1920. 


16. 


Geneva, Aug. 31-Sept. 5 


2. 


London, Feb. 22-25, 1921. 




1925. 


3. 


Geneva, Sept. 3-12, 1921. 


17. 


Geneva, Nov. 30-Dec. 4 


4. 


Geneva, March 20-25, 1922. 




1925. 


5. 


Geneva, June 8-10, 1922. 


18. 


Geneva, March 1-6, 1926. 


6. 


Geneva, Sept. 4-13, 1922. 


19. 


Paris, June 14-17, 1926. 


7. 


Geneva, Jan. 20-23, 1923. 


20. 


Geneva, Aug. 30-Sept. 3 


8. 


Geneva, March 26-29, 1923. 




1926. 


9. 


Geneva, May 14-16, 1923. 


21. 


Rome, Feb. 25-March 2, 1927 


10. 


Geneva, Aug. 30-Sept. 3, 


22. 


Geneva, July 12-14, 1927. 




1923. 


23. 


Geneva, Dec. 15-21, 1927. 


11. 


Geneva, Feb. 26-29, 1924. 


24. 


Geneva, March 26-30, 1928. 


12. 


Geneva, May 8-11, 1924. 


25. 


Geneva, June 25-28, 1928. 


13. 


Geneva, Aug. 26-30, 1924. 


26. 


Geneva, Oct. 23-30, 1928. 


14. 


Geneva, Jan. 28-31, 1925. 


27. 


Geneva, Jan. 14- , 1929. 



Committee of Experts on Double Taxation 



Geneva, March 14-17, 1922. 
Geneva, June 4-9, 1923. 
Geneva, Oct. 8-13, 1923. 
Geneva, March 31-April 7, 1924. 
Geneva, Oct. 20-27, 1924. 



Geneva, Feb. 2-7, 1925. 
Geneva, May 17-22, 1926. 
Geneva, Jan. 5-12, 1927. 
London, April 5-12, 1927. 
Geneva, Oct. 22-31, 1928. 



Advisory and Technical Committee for Communications and Transit 
1. Tulv 25-28. 1921. Willem 5. Geneva, Aug. 29-Sept. 1, 

1923. Benjamin Fernandez y 
Medina, Uruguay, chairman. 

6. Geneva, March 12-14, 1924. 
J. G. Baldwin, Great Britain, 
chairman. 

7. Geneva, Nov. 26-28, 1924. 
J. G. Baldwin, Great Britain, 
chairman. 

8. Geneva, July 24-30, 1925. 
Yotaro Sugimura, Japan, 
chairman. 



July 25-28, 1921. Willem 
Jan Marie van Eysinga, Neth- 
erlands, chairman. 

2. March 29-April 1, 1922. 
Willem Jan Marie van Ey- 
singa, Netherlands, chairman. 

3. Aug. 30-Sept. 2, 1922. Ben- 
jamin Fernandez y Medina, 
Uruguay, chairman. 

4. Geneva, April 23-30, 1923. 
Benjamin Fernandez y Me- 
dina, Uruguay, chairman. 



[218 



MEETINGS 



219 



9. Geneva, July 12-17, 1926. 
Aristide de Aguero y Bethan- 
court, Cuba, chairman. 

10. Geneva, Feb. 28-March 5, 
1927. Aristide de Aguero y 
Bethancourt, Cuba, chairman. 



11. Geneva, Aug. 19-22, 1927. 
Aristide de Aguero y Bethan- 
court, Cuba, chairman. 

12. Geneva, Feb. 24-March 7, 
1928. Girolamo Sinigalia, 
Italy, chairman. 



Special Committee of Inquiry on Reform of the Calendar 

1. Paris, May 19-20, 1924. 

2. Geneva, Feb. 16-17, 1925. 

3. Geneva, June 23-24, 1926. 



Health Committee 
Provisional Health Committee 



1. Geneva, Aug. 25-29, 1921. 

2. Paris, Oct. 20-22, 1921. 

3. Paris, May 11-16, 1922. 



4. Geneva, Aug. 14-21, 1922. 

5. Geneva, Jan. 8-13, 1923. 

6. Paris, May 26-June 6, 1923. 



1. Geneva, Feb. 11-21, 1924. 

2. Paris, May 7-10, 1924. 

3. Geneva, Sept. 29-Oct. 4, 1924 

4. Geneva, April 20-25, 1925. 

5. Geneva, Oct. 8-14, 1925. 

6. Geneva, April 26-May 1 
1926. 

7. Paris, June 19-20, 1926. 



Standing Health Committee 

8. Geneva, Oct. 13-19, 1926. 

9. Geneva, Feb. 14-18, 1927. 

10. Paris, April 26-27, 1927. 

11. Geneva, Oct. 18-Nov. 3, 1927. 

12. Geneva, April 30-May 5, 
1928. 

13. Geneva, Oct. 25-31, 1928. 



Advisory Committee on Opium 

1. Geneva, May 2-5, 1921. 

2. Geneva, April 19-29, 1922. 

3. Geneva, Sept. 1, 1922. 

4. Geneva, Jan. 8-14, 1923. 

5. Geneva, May 24-June 7, 1923. 

6. Geneva, Aug. 4-11, 1924. 



and Other Dangerous Drugs 

7. Geneva, Aug. 24-31, 1925. 

8. Geneva, May 26-June 8, 1926. 

9. Geneva, Jan. 17-Feb. 3, 1927. 

10. (Extraordinary.) Geneva, 
Sept. 28-Oct. 8, 1927. 

11. Geneva, April 12-27, 1928. 



International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation 



1. Geneva, Aug. 1-5, 1922. 

2. Geneva, July 26-Aug. 2, 1923. 

3. Paris, Dec. 5-8, 1923. 

4. Geneva, July 25-29, 1924. 

5. Paris, May 11-15, 1925. 



6. Geneva, July 27-30, 1925. 

7. Paris, Jan. 14-18, 1926. 

8. Geneva, July 26-29, 1926. 

9. Geneva, July 22-26, 1927. 
10. Geneva, July 25-31, 1928. 



[219 



220 



WORLD PEACE FOUNDATION 



Permanent Mandates Commission 

1. Geneva, Oct. 4-8 1921 c /t? ^ 

2. Geneva, Aug. 1-11 1922 Extraordinary). Rome, Feb. 

3- Geneva July 20-A u f 10 C '**"*} *' 1926 ' 

1923 g * ' 9 ' Gen eva, June 8-25, 1926. 

4. Geneva, June 24-JuIy 8 1924 U C^™' V™' 4 ~ 19 ' 1926 ' 

5. Geneva, Oct. 23-No V 6 1924 12 cST*' 'n* 2 °~ Ju,y 6 ' 1927 ' 

6. Geneva, June 26-JuIy 10,' ^7 ' *' 24 ~ N ° V ' "' 

7. Geneva, Oct. 19-30 1925 11' r^'™' J ^" e 12_29 ' 1928 - 

' iy ^* 14 - Geneva, Oct. 26-Nov. 13 



1928. 



Temporary Committee on Slavery 
Geneva, July 9-12, 1924. 
Geneva, July 13-25, 1925. 

Advise Condon for the Proton a„ d We. fare „ f CniUren and 

3. Geneva, April 7-11, 1924 e> r ' » ., 

4. Geneva, May 20-27, 1925. P^' P 25 ~ May 6 ' 

7. Geneva, March 12-24, 1928. 

Committee on Traffic in Women and Children 

5. Geneva, March 22-25, 1926. 

6. Geneva, April 25-29, 1927. 

7. Geneva, March 12-17, 1928. 

Child Welfare Committee 

1. Geneva, Mav 23-25 192S i r 

2. Geneva, March 25-A Dr ii 1 f" r ^ * Iay 2 ~ 6 ' 1927 ' 
1926. P ' 4 - Geneva > March 19-24, 1928. 



[220 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Aaland Islands dispute 207 

Abbott, Grace 139 

Abyssinia: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations. . . 14 
Afghanistan: 

nonmember of League of Nations 20 

Air Navigation, International 71 

Albania: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
dispute with Serb-Croat-Slovene 

State . 209 

member of League of Nations. . . 14 
property and minority in 

Greece 169-170 

Ambassadors, Conference of. . 18, 199, 209 
American Association for Preven- 
tion of Blindness 142 

American Bureau of Social Hygiene: 
contribution for inquiry on opium 

in Persia 135 

contribution for suppression of 
traffic in women and children 139 
American Council on Education: 
contribution for inquiry into uni- 
versity exchanges 119 

American Social Hygiene Associa- 
tion: 
contribution for child welfare 

work 142 

investigation into traffic in 

women 139 

American University Union 118 

Andorra: 

invitation to accede to conven- 
tions of League 21 

Anthrax, subcommittee on 100 

Arbitration: 

commercial disputes 54 

protocol 55 

Arbitration, security and disarma- 
ment: 
aggressive wars, Assembly reso- 
lution on 201 

committee on arbitration and 
security — 

duties 201 

General Act 202 

meetings 217 

mutual assistance and nonaggres- ;• 
sion, model conventions 203 



PAGE 

Archeological research 124 

Argentina: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations. . . 14, 15 

neutral in World War 1 

Armament: 

chemical warfare 195 

Conference for the limitation of 

naval 191 

interchange of information 192 

private manufacture of arms and 

munitions of war 196 

committee of experts on 217 

see also League of Nations, 
private manufacture of arms, 
permanent advisory commission 
on — 

meetings 216 

reduction of — 

coordination commission 189 

Covenant provision 186 

supervision of international trade 

in 193-195 

temporary mixed commission for 
reduction of — 

meetings 216 

Armaments Y ear-Book 193 

Armenia: 

refugees in 145 

scheme for refugee settlement in 146 
Australia: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 

mandate for Pacific Islands 156 

mandate for Nauru 156 

member of League of Nations. . . 14 
Austria: 

appeal for financial assistance, 

1922 59 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 

currency reform 60 

financial reconstruction — 

loan under League auspices. . .58, 62 

protocols signed Oct. 4, 1922. .60, 62 

member of League of Nations. . . 14 

Baldwin, Stanley 188 

Balfour, Lord: 

member of committee on recon- 
struction of Austria 60 

memorandum of May 19, 1920, 
on Secretariat 34, 35 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Barcelona convention on regime of 

navigable waterways 96 

Barcelona conference 97 

Belgium: 
budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations. . . 14 

Benes, Eduard 60 

Bern convention, 1890 97 

Bergson, Henri 113 

Bibliography, see League of Na- 
tions, Intellectual Cooperation. 

Bills of exchange 57 

Bolivia: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations ... 14 

Bosporus, neutralization of 97 

Bourgeois, Leon 112, 113 

Brazil: 

claim for representation on Coun- 
cil 18 

international school of public 

health in 107 

member of League of Nations ... 14 
notice of withdrawal from League 

of Nations 14 

Briand, Aristide 19, 67 

Briand- Kellogg pact 192 

Brussels conference of 1889-90 162 

Brussels International Financial 

Conference, 1920 44 

Bulgaria: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
commission of inquiry on Bul- 

garo-Greek affairs 31 

convention with Greece on recip- 
rocal emigration, 1919 68, 171 

dispute with Greece 212-213 

Greco- Bulgarian mixed Commis- 
sion 68, 171 

liquidation of Greek property ... 68 
loan under auspices of League 58, 149 
member of League of Nations ... 14 

reconstruction plan 150 

refugee settlement 64-65, 149 

stabilization loan protocols signed 

September 8, 1928 65-66 

Bulletin for University Relations. . . 118 
Buoyage and lighting of coasts 80 

Calendar reform: 

international organizations to 

study question of 92 

schemes for 93-94 

special committee of inquiry .... 92 
view of churches as to 94 

Canada: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations. . . 14 

Cancer, see League of Nations, 
Health Organization. 

Caprivi Zipfel, mandate 156 



PAGE 

Carris, L. W 142 

Central Commission for Rhine 

Navigation 71 

Central Railway Transport Office. . 71 

Chalcography 122 

Chemical warfare, protocol 195-196 

Child welfare, see League of Na- 
tions. 
Chile: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations. . . 14 

neutral in World War 1 

China: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations. . . 14 
Christian Union of Transport 

Workers 71 

Ciraolo, Giovanni: 

proposal for international relief 

organization 150 

Codification of international law, 

see League of Nations. 
Colombia: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations .. . 14 

neutral in World War 1 

Communications and transit: 

conference held at Paris, 1920 .. . 70 

Covenant provision for 70 

general conferences, list of 71 

United States expenses for con- 
ference on 39 

see also League of Nations, Or- 
ganization for Communications 
and Transit. 
Conference of Press Experts, see 

League of Nations. 
Conference of South American Ex- 
perts on Child Welfare, June, 

1927 106 

Conference on Traffic in Arms, 
1925: 

United States payment for 39 

Conferences: 

communications and transit 39, 71 

disarmament 39 

hides, skins and bones 50 

import and export prohibitions. . 39 

opium 39 

traffic in arms 39 

Congress of Popular Arts, Prague, 

1928 122 

Convention for supervision of inter- 
national trade in arms 193-195 

Convention on Execution of Arbi- 
tral Awards, 1927 55 

Corfu incident 211 

Costa, Affonso Augusto da 215 

Costa Rica: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations. . . 14, 15 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Costa Rica — Continued. 

notice of withdrawal from League 

of Nations 14 

request for League interpretation 

of Monroe doctrine 15-16 

Court of International Justice, the 
Permanent: 
advisory opinions — 

European Commission of Dan- 
ube 95 

Polish postal service in Danzig 179 

election of judges 22 

optional clause of Statute 204 

Protocol of Signature 22 

rights of minorities in Upper 

Silesia 169 

Cuba: 
budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations .. . 14 

Curie, Mme. Marie 113 

Customs formalities, international 
convention on: 

agreements reached 53 

annual reports 54 

disputes, arbitration of 54 

international office at Brussels 

for publication of 54 

Czechoslovakia : 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
dispute over Jaworzina frontier. 209 
member of League of Nations. . . 14 

Damascus bombardment 161 

Dandurand, Raoul 215 

Danube river: 

European Commission of 84 

investigations made by Commit- 
tee for Communications and 

Transit 84-85 

Danzig, Free City of: 

agreement with Poland, Oct. 24, 

1921 177 

constitution 174 

convention with Poland, Nov. 9, 

1920 175 

high commissioner 175 

loans under auspices of League. .58, 65 
provision of peace treaty regard- 
ing 65, 174 

treaty with Poland, Aug. 4, 1928 179 
see also League of Nations. 

Dardanelles, neutralization of 97 

Dawes Plan 187 

Denmark: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations. . . 14 

neutral in World War 1 

Disarmament conference, prepar- 
atory commission for, see 
League of Nations. 
Disputes, pacific settlement of 205 



PAGE 

Dominican Republic: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations ... 14 
Double taxation, see League of Na- 
tions, Economic and Financial 
Organization. 

Drugs, unification of formulas 107 

Drummond, Sir Eric 32 

Eastern Carelian dispute 209 

Economic Conference, Interna- 
tional, see International Eco- 
nomic Conference. 
The Economic Situation of Austria, 
by Walter T. Layton and 

Charles Rist 62 

Economic statistics, see Statistics, 

economic. 
Ecuador: 

nonmember of League of Nations 20 

Edwards, Agustxn 215 

Egypt: 

nonmember of League of Nations 20 

Einstein, Albrecht 113 

Electric questions, see League of 
Nations, Organization for 
Communications and Transit. 

Emigration Commissions 68, 171 

Epidemics 100-104 

Estonia: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 

financial reconstruction of 67 

loan under auspices of League. . . 58 
member of League of Nations. . . 14 
European Commission of the Dan- 
ube 95 

European Health Conference, War- 
saw, 1922 101-102 

European War, see World War. 

Federation of P. E. N. Clubs 123 

Financial Committee, see League of 
Nations, Economic and Finan- 
cial Organization. 
Financial reconstruction, see League 

of Nations. 
Finland : 

Aaland Islands dispute 207 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 

Eastern Carelian dispute 209 

member of League of Nations .. . 14 
Foreign Arbitral Awards, see Con- 
vention on execution of foreign 
arbitral awards. 

Foreign nationals, treatment of 57 

France : 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
commercial treaty with Ger- 
many, August 17, 1927 174 

mandate for Syria and Lebanon . 155 
member of League of Nations. . . 14 



IV 



INDEX 



PAGE 

France — Continued . 

Saar Basin under control of . . . 172-173 

Francisci, Pietro de 185 

Franco-German commercial treaty, 

August 17, 1927 174 

Friends of the League of Nations: 
contribution made for child wel- 
fare work I 42 

Galsworthy, John I 23 

Geneva Protocol for Pacific Settle- 
ment of International Disputes 187 
Germany: 

application for admission to 

League of Nations 16-17 

armament forces regulated by 

treaty of Versailles 18 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
commercial treaty with France, 

August 17, 1927 174 

condition respecting Art. 16 of 

Covenant 16 

convention with Poland on ad- 
ministration of Upper Silesia. . 211 
date of admission to League of 

Nations i8 

member of League of Nations. . . 14 
minority schools in Upper Silesia 169 

Godet, Marcel 120 

Great Britain: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 

Iraq boundary dispute 210 

mandate for Trans-Jordania. . . 153-154 
member of League of Nations .. . 14 
Ministry of Health — 

conference on health organiza- 
tion of League, 1920 98 

Greco-Bulgarian emigration Com- 
mission I'l 

Greece: 

Abanian property and minority 

in 169-170 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
commission of inquiry on Bul- 

garo-Greek affairs 31 

convention with Bulgaria regard- 
ing emigration 68, 171 

Corfu incident 211 

dispute with Bulgaria 212-213 

epidemic in 101 

Greco- Bulgarian emigration com- 
mission 68, 171 

liquidation of Bulgarian property 68 
loan under auspices of 

League 58, 64, 147 

member of League of Nations .. . 14 
mixed commission on Greco- 
Turkish exchange of popula- 
tions 32 

Moslems in 1 '0 

refugee settlement — 

building construction 148 



PAGE 

Greece — Continued. 

Settlement Commission 146-149 

stabilization and refugee loan ... 66 

Guani, Alberto 215 

Guatemala: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 

member of League of Nations .. . 14 

Haiti: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations. . . 14 

Hamel, Joost van 176 

Hanotaux, Gabriel 60 

Health Conference, European, 

1922 101-102 

Health insurance HI 

Health Organization, see League of 
Nations. 

Herriot, Edouard 187 

Hides and bones: 

conferences for abolition of ex- 
port prohibitions on 52 

Hines, Walker D.: 

reports on Danube and Rhine 

navigation 84-85 

Holiday Courses in Europe 119 

Honduras: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations. . . 14 
Hungary: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
financial reconstruction — 

loan 5g . 64 

protocols presented by Finan- 
cial Committee, provisions 

of 63-64 

resolution of Reparation Com- 
mission, Oct. 17, 1923 63 

schedule for 64 

Jewish minority in 168 

loan under auspices of League. . .58, 64 
member of League of Nations .. . 14 
Mixed Rumanian and Hungarian 

Arbitral Tribunal 213 

property rights in Rumania 167 

railway disputes 96 

Szent-Gotthard incident 200 

Hydraulic Danube Commission 71 

Hydraulic power, convention, 1923 . 90-91 

Hydrographic Bureau 80 

Hymans, Paul 215 

Iceland: 

invitation to accede to conven- 
tions of League 21 

Imperiali, Marquis 60 

Import and export prohibitions and 
restrictions, conference on: 

conditions of entry into force 52 

first multilateral treaty regulating 

commercial relations 5i 

problems discussed 5 1 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Import and export prohibitions and 
restrictions, conference on — 
Continued, 
supplementary agreement, states 

signatories 51 

United States expenses for 39 

Index Bibliographicus 120 

India: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 

member of League of Nations. . . 14 
Industrial property, international 

convention for protection of . . . 56 

Infant mortality 106, 110 

Infant Welfare, Committee of 

Health Experts on 110 

Influenza epidemic 104 

Inland navigation, see Navigation, 

inland. 
Institute of Intellectual Coopera- 
tion: 

artistic relations section 117 

arts and letters, subcommittee on 121 
bibliography, coordination of. . 120, 121 

budget 117 

casts of works of art 122 

central office 119 

chalcography 122 

establishment 114, 116 

general information on 114 

Governing Body 116 

Index Bibliographicus 120 

information and reference section 117 

legal section 117 

libraries, coordination of 121 

linguistic terms, standardization 

of 121 

literary relations section 117, 123 

manuscripts, preservation of . . . . 121 

motion pictures 122 

museums 122 

music 123 

national delegates 114, 117 

object 117 

popular arts 122 

research 121 

scientific relations section 117, 120 

seat of 116 

students' organizations 119 

university relations section 117 

Intellectual Cooperation, Commit- 
tee on, see League of Nations. 

Intellectual rights 123-125 

Interallied Military Commission of 

Control 199 

Inter-American High Commission. . 55 
International Air Traffic Associa- 
tion 71 

International Association for Pro- 
motion of Child Welfare. . .138, 140 
International Astronomical Union: 

work on calendar reform 92 

International Broadcasting Union. 71 



PAGE 

International Central Railway 

Transport Office 71 

International Chamber of Com- 
merce 46, 71, 92 

International Cinematographic In- 
stitute 142 

International Commission for Air 

Navigation 71 

International Conference for the 
Suppression of Obscene Publi- 
cations, Geneva, 1923 143 

International Conference for the 
Unification of Economic Sta- 
tistics 56 

International Conference for the 
Unification of the Formulae of 

Powerful Drugs, 2d, 1925 108 

International Convention for the 
Protection of Industrial Prop- 
erty 56 

International Council of Women. . . 141 
International Economic Confer- 
ence: 

Assembly resolution 45 

delegates 47 

Final Report 48, 49 

organization 45 

Preparatory Committee — 

appointment 46 

members 46 

work of 47 

recommendation on tariff no- 
menclature 57 

temporary subcommittees of ex- 
perts for 45 

International Exhibition of Popu- 
lar Arts, Bern, 1928 122 

International Federation of Trans- 
port Workers 71 

International Federation of Univer- 
sity Women 119, 141 

International Financial Conference, 

Brussels, 1920 44 

International Health Year-Book 100 

International Institute for Unifica- 
tion of Private Law 184 

International Institute of Educa- 
tion 118 

International Institute of Intel- 
lectual Cooperation, see Insti- 
tute of Intellectual Coopera- 
tion. 
International Institute of Statis- 
tics 56, 125 

International Labor Office, see In- 
ternational Labor Organization. 
International Labor Organization: 

employment of refugees 145 

International Labor Office 71 

International law, see League of 
Nations, codification of inter- 
national law. 



INDEX 



PAGE 

International Museums Office 122 

International Oder Commission . . . 95-96 
International Office for Publication 

of Customs Tariffs, Brussels. . . 54 
International organizations, status 

of 124 

International Pacific Health Con- 
ference, 1926 107 

International Rabies Conference, 

April, 1927 109 

International Railway Union 71 

International Relief Union 151-152 

see also League of Nations. 

International River Commissions. . 71 

International Shipping Conference. 71 

International Student Service 119 

International Students' Confedera- 
tion 119 

International Students' Organiza- 
tions, Committee of Represent- 
atives of: 

sessions 1 19-120 

International Suffrage Alliance 141 

International Union of Railway 

Administration 71 

International University Federation 

for the League of Nations 119 

International University Informa- 
tion Office 117 

Investigation, right of 197-199 

Iraq: 

dispute over boundary of 210 

mandated to Great Britain 154 

refugees in 146 

Irish Free State: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 

member of League of Nations .. . 14 
Italy: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 

Corfu incident 211 

member of League of Nations .. . 14 

Japan: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
cooperation with Health Organ- 
ization of League 107 

mandate for Pacific Islands 156 

member of League of Nations. . . 14 

Jaworzina frontier, dispute over. . . 209 

Johnson, Bascom 139 

Journalism 73-76 

Karnebeek, Jonkheer van 215 

Kellogg, Frank B 19 

Kellogg pact for renunciation of war 192 

Latin America: 

investigation of infant mortality 

in HI 

Latvia: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 

member of League of Nations .. . 14 



PAGE 

Lausanne convention, January 30, 

1923 171 

Lausanne, Treaty of 146, 153, 210 

Layton, Walter T. : 

report to Council on economic 

situation of Austria 62 

League of Nations: 

admission of Germany to 18 

Advisory and Technical Commit- 
tee for Communications and 

Transit 71-73 

Advisory Commission for Protec- 
tion and Welfare of Children 

and Young People 220 

Advisory Committee on Traffic 
in Opium and Other Danger- 
ous Drugs 133-135 

see also Opium, 
arbitration — 

Assembly action on 204 

mutual assistance and non- 
agression 203 

see also Arbitration, security 
and disarmament, 
armaments, reduction of — 

coordination commission 189 

Covenant provisions on 186 

draft treaty of mutual assist- 
ance 187 

permanent advisory commis- 
sion 190 

right of investigation 197-199 

temporary mixed commission 

for 187, 189, 216 

assembly — 

action of Ninth session on arbi- 
tration 204 

administrative tribunal set up 

by Seventh 33 

admission of Germany by 

Seventh 18 

Agenda Committee 23 

committees 23 

election of nonpermanent mem- 
bers of Council 29-31 

functions 21-22 

General Committee 23 

meetings 21, 215 

members 21 

organization 21 

procedure 23-24 

report of First on delegates to 21 
resolutions — 

adopted by Eighth on Eco- 
nomic Conference 45-46 

adopted by Ninth on Codi- 
fication of international 

law 183 

conciliation 202 

foreign nationals, May, 1925 56 
import and export prohibi- 
tions 51 



INDEX 



PAGE 

League of Nations — Continued. 

intellectual cooperation 112 

moving pictures 122 

obscene publications 143 

Secretariat 34, 35 

wars of aggression 201 

vote 21 

Assembly Hall 39-40 

Barcelona conference 71-72 

bibliography, subcommittee on. . 120 
budget and financial questions, 

committee on 23 

budgets, 1920-29 37 

refunds 38 

buildings, new 39-40 

Bulgarian refugee and stabiliza- 
tion loans 64, 149 

buoyage and lighting of coasts . . 80 

calendar reform 92-94, 219 

cancer commission Ill 

chemical warfare 195 

Child Welfare Committee — 

blindness, prevention of 142 

contributions to 142 

"declaration of Geneva". . .140-141 

illegitimacy 142 

juvenile courts 142 

legal age of marriage and con- 
sent 143 

liaison subcommittee 142 

minors, relief of 142 

organization 140-141 

codification of international 
law — 
committee of experts — 

questions submitted to . . . 182-183 

committee of jurists 179 

conference 181 

nationality 181 

responsibility of states for 

damages 181 

systematic survey on 184 

territorial waters 181 

Commission of Control, see 
League of Nations, Supervisory 
Commission. 
Commission on, at Peace Con- 
ference 1 

Commissioner-General — 

functions of financial recon- 
struction of Austria 61 

Committee of Ports, Waterways 

and Railways 70 

Committee of Telegraphic and 

Press Experts 74 

committee on allocation of ex- 
penses 35-36 

communications and transit, see 
Organization for Communica- 
tions and Transit. 
Conference of Press Experts — 

censorship 75-76 



PAGE 

League of Nations — Continued. 

customs regulations 74 

journalists 75-76 

meeting 73 

members 73-74 

published news 75 

resolutions 74-76 

unpublished news 75 

Conference of South American 
Experts on Child Welfare, 

June 7, 1927 106 

Conference on Control of Trade 

in Arms, 1925 196 

Conference on import and export 
prohibitions and restrictions, 
see Import and export pro- 
hibitions and restrictions, con- 
ference on. 
Congress of Popular Arts, Prague, 

1928 122 

Consultative Economic Com- 
mittee, meeting 218 

correspondence with United 

States 19-20 

Council — 

action on Danzig questions 178-179 

agenda 26 

appointment of arbitrators to 

settle railway disputes 96-97 

appointment of committee of 
experts for progressive codi- 
fication of international law 180 
appointment of Permanent 

Central Board on Opium . . . 130 
Committee on Composition 

of 29 

counterfeiting currency 67 

creation of financial and eco- 
nomic organization 44 

Danzig loans 65 

decision as to Westerplatte 

Peninsula 176 

disputes 207-214 

Estonian banking reform 67 

functions 25 

items handled by 26 

meetings 215-216 

minority disputes 166-170 

nonpermanent members 28-31 

organization 24-25 

permanent members 24 

powers and duties 25 

president 26 

procedure 26-27 

rapporteurs, list of 27-28 

reply to Costa Rica on an in- 
terpretation of Monroe doc- 
trine 15-16 

resolutions — 

disarmament of Danzig 176 

minorities 165,171 

right of investigation 198-199 



INDEX 



PAGE 

League of Nations — Continued, 
sessions, question of reduction 

of 26-27 

Szent-Gotthard incident 200 

temporary members 24, 31 

vote 26 

counterfeiting currency — 

conference to be held April 9, 

1929 68 

draft convention 68 

letter of M. Briand on 67 

mixed committee on 67 

Covenant — 

Art. 4 24,29,31 

Art. 8 on reduction of arma- 
ment 186 

Arts. 11-14 205 

Art. 18 on registration of 

treaties 32, 41 

Art. 22 on mandates 152 

Art. 23 70, 128, 136 

date of coming into force 2 

engagements under 2-5 

Germany's condition respect- 
ing Art. 16 16-17 

provisions with regard to 

traffic in opium 128 

states accepting 2 

withdrawals 2 

customs formalities, international 

convention on 53 

Danzig, Free City of — 

disarmament of 175-176 

foreign relations of 175 

Polish rights in 177-179 

Westerplatte Peninsula 176 

see also Danzig, Free City of. 
"Declaration of Geneva" on pro- 
motion of child welfare 140 

delegates 19 

Disarmament conference, prepar- 
atory commission for — 

composition 190 

meetings 217 

naval cruiser tonnage 191 

sessions 191 

United States share of expenses 39 

for 39 

work of 191 

disputes handled by 207-214 

double taxation 69-70, 218 

Economic and Financial Organ- 
ization — 

bills of exchange 57 

Bulgarian refugee settlement 

loan 64 

counterfeiting currency 67 

customs tariffs 50-51 

double taxation 69-70, 218 

Economic Committee — 

commercial disputes, proto- 
col for arbitration of 54-55 



PAGE 

League of Nations — Continued. 

commercial policy, work re- 
garding 50 

committee of customs experts 57 
committee on foreign arbitral 

awards 55 

Council provision for 46 

meetings 218 

membership 46 

resolution of Eighth Assem- 
bly with regard to 45 

simplification of customs 

formalities 53 

tariffs, international action 

regarding 50 

treatment of foreign nation- 
als 56 

treaty-making' methods 50 

Economic Consultative Com- 
mittee 46-49 

Estonian banking reform 67 

Financial Committee — 

Central bank statistics 69 

liquidation of Greco-Bulga- 
rian property 68 

meetings 217 

work of 58 

foreign nationals, treatment 

of 56 

Greek refugee settlement 64, 66 

loan contracts 58 

statistics 56 

tax evasion, conventions on. . . 70 

unfair competition 55-56 

emigration between Greece and 

Bulgaria 68, 171 

epidemic commission 101 

establishment 1 

Estonian banking and currency 

reform 67 

expenditure, see League of Na- 
tions, finances, 
finances — 

allocation of expenditure 35-38 

see also budget. 
Financial Committee, see Eco- 
nomic and Financial Organiza- 
tion, 
financial reconstruction — 

Austria 59-63 

banking and currency in Esto- 
nia 67 

Bulgarian stabilization loan 

64-66, 149 

Danzig loans 65 

Greek refugee settlement 

loan 64, 66, 148 

Hungary 63-64 

see also, Hungary, financial re- 
construction. |pi «***» >i 
international credits scheme. . 59 
foreign nationals, treatment of . . 57 



INDEX 



PAGE 

League of Nations — Continued. 
Greco- Bulgarian emigration com- 
mission 68, 1 71 

Greek stabilization and refugee 

loan 66, 148 

growth 13 

Health Organization — 

Advisory Council 99 

anthrax, subcommittee on ... . 100 

cancer commission Ill 

commission on education in 
hygiene and preventive med- 
icine 106 

committee on a standard mil- 
lion population 100 

composition 99 

Conference of South American 
Experts on Child Welfare, 

June, 1927 106 

Covenant provisions for 98 

epidemic activities 100-104 

Epidemiological Report 103 

functions 99-100 

Health Committee — 

meetings 99, 219 

membership 99 

infant mortality 106, 110 

influenza epidemic 104 

insurance, its relation to public 

health services Ill 

interchange of public health 

officials 104-106 

International Pacific Health 

Conference, Dec. 15, 1926. . . 107 
International Rabies Confer- 
ence, 1927 108-109 

Japanese cooperation with .... 107 

lymph, study of 100 

malaria commission. . . . 105, 109-110 
Office international d'Hygiene 
publique, cooperation with. .98-99 

opium commission 100 

proposed school for infant hy- 
giene 106 

Provisional Health Committee 99 

publications 100 

quarantine disinfection of ships 100 
sanitary convention of 1926. . . 104 

scholarships 105 

Singapore Bureau 103-104 

sleeping sickness in Africa 112 

smallpox commission 100 

standardization of sera 107 

"still-birth," study of 100 

training courses 105-106 

tuberculosis in Africa 112 

vaccination commission 100 

hides and bones . . 52 

Hungarian optants in Rumania. . 167 
hydraulic power, development of. 90-91 
identity documents for persons 
without nationality 79 



PAGE 

League of Nations — Continued. 
Infant Welfare, Committee of 

Health Experts on 110 

inland navigation 83-86 

instruction of youth 126-127 

Intellectual Cooperation, Com- 
mittee on — 

appointment 113 

archeological research 124 

arts and letters, subcommittee 

on 114 

bibliography, subcommittee on 114 
circulation of publications. . . . 125 
Committee of Representatives 
of International Students' 

Organizations 119 

development 113 

educational information centers 126 
Institute of Intellectual Coop- 
eration, see Institute, 
instruction of youth, subcom- 
mittee of experts 125-126 

intellectual property, subcom- 
mittee on 114 

intellectual rights, subcommit- 
tee on 123 

literary and artistic property, 

subcommittee on 124 

meetings 219 

members 113 

National Committees 115 

science and bibliography, sub- 
committee on 120-121 

scientific property, protection 

of 123-124 

statistics 125 

status of international organ- 
izations 124 

university relations, subcom- 
mittee on 114, 117 

International Conference for the 
Unification of the Formulae of 

Powerful Drugs, 2d. 1925 108 

International Labor Organiza- 
tion — 

employment of refugees 145 

International Museums Office . . . 122 
International Rabies Conference, 

April, 1927 108-109 

International Relief Union. . . . 151-152 

investigation, right of 197-199 

library 40 

Malaria Commission 109-110 

mandated territories — 

application of treaties 160 

capital 160 

classes 153-156 

Covenant provisions for 152 

definition 152-153 

equality of treatment 159 

liquor traffic 159 

military recruiting 159 



INDEX 



PAGE 

League of Nations — Continued. 

nationality 159 

Permanent Mandates Commis- 
sion 156-157 

petitions 158 

state land 159 

status of 158 

members — 

admitted 13, 14 

original 2, 13 

minorities — 

bilateral treaties 164 

disputes 167-169 

emigration commissions 171 

petitions 165-166 

provisions of peace treaty. . . 164-165 

states under regime 163 

mixed committee on counterfeit- 
ing of currency 67 

nonmembers 20 

obscene publications, convention 

of 1923 on 143-144 

opium — 

advisory committee — 

meetings 219 

Cavazzoni proposal 136 

commission of inquiry on Per- 
sian production 135 

conventions of 1925 129-132 

second conference 129 

United States share of ex- 
penses 39 

see also Advisory Committee 
on Traffic, and Opium. 
Organization for Communica- 
tions and Transit — 
advisory and technical com- 
mittee — 

membership 72 

work of 73,95 

air transport 74 

calendar reform 92 

conventions and statute — 

freedom of transit 76 

international r6gime of mari- 
time ports 82 

regime of navigable water- 
ways 80 

regime of railways 87 

customs regulations 74 

disputes, adjustment of 95 

electric questions 89-91 

General Conferences 71 

identity documents 79 

inland navigation 83-86 

maritime flag 83 

passports 74 

ports and maritime navigation 79-83 

railroad systems 96 

rail transport 74, 86-89, 96 

road traffic 91-92 



PAGE 

League of Nations — Continued. 

straits commission 97-98 

Third General Conference 73, 79 

transit, statute on freedom of. . 76-77 
wireless station 89 

organs 21-35 

pacific settlement of disputes. .205-214 

passport conference 77-79 

Permanent Advisory Commission 
on Armaments 216 

Permanent Advisory Commission 
on Military, Naval and Air 
Questions 177 

Permanent Mandates Commis- 
sion — 

constitution 156 

meetings 157, 220 

petitions 158 

ports and maritime navigation . . 79-83 

Press Experts Conference, see 
Conference of Press Experts. 

printing and publications depart- 
ment 33 

private law, unification of 184-185 

private manufacture of arms and 
munitions of war 196 

public health personnel, inter- 
change of 104-106 

rail transport 86-89 

refugees — 

Armenian settlement scheme. . 146 
Bulgarian settlement loan. . .64, 145 
expenditure for repatriation of 145 
Greek settlement scheme .... 64. 145 

identity certificates for 79 

Russian and Armenian prob- 
lem 145 

Saar Basin — 

advisory council 172 

Franco-German commercial 

treaty, August 17, 1927 174 

French troops in 173 

Governing Commission 97, 173 

peace treaty provision for ad- 
ministration of 172 

railroads 97 

technical council 172 

Secretariat — 

administrative commissions ... 33 
administrative tribunal for 

Staff disputes 33 

appointment to 32 

Deputy Secretary-General 33 

distribution of documents 33 

drafting committee 33 

functions 32 

internal administration 33 

interpreters and translators ... 33 

library 33 

minorities questions 33 

opium traffic 33 



INDEX 



PAGE 

League of Nations — Continued. 

organization 32 

period of office 34 

personnel 32 

qualifications 34 

registry 33 

seat 32 

Secretary-General 32 

sections 33 

social questions 33 

staff list 33 

Under Secretaries-General .... 33 

sera, standardization of 107 

slavery 220 

statistics, central banks 69 

Straits Commission 97-98 

supervisory commission — 

election 39 

organization 38 

Szent-Gotthard incident 200 

tariff nomenclature 57 

telegraphic and press experts, 

special committee on 74 

telegraphic and telephonic com- 
munication 89 

tonnage measurement, technical 

committee for maritime 80 

treaties, registration of 42 

Treaty Series 41-42 

units allocated to Member states 36 

veterinary questions 52 

wireless station 89 

withdrawals 14 

women and children, traffic in — 

advisory committee 138 

conferences 136 

contribution by American Bu- 
reau of Social Hygiene for 

suppression of 139 

investigations on 139 

protection of children, see 

Child Welfare Committee. 
Special Body of Experts, re- 
port 139 

working capital fund 37 

League of Red Cross Societies .... 100 
Lebanon: 

mandated to France 155 

refugees in 146 

Liberia: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 

member of League of Nations .. . 14 

Libraries, coordination of 121 

Liechtenstein: 

application for admission to 

League of Nations 20 

Literary and artistic property: 

conventions for protection of . . . . 124 
Lithuania: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 

dispute with Poland 207-209 



PAGE 

Lithuania — Continued. 

member of League of Nations. . . 14 

Polish minority in 168 

transfer of Memel to 212 

Loans, international: 

list of 58 

Locarno Conference 188 

London Conference on Reparations 187 

London Health Conference 101 

Lorentz, Prof. H. A 113 

Luxemburg: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 

member of League of Nations. . . 14 

MacDonald, J. Ramsay 187 

McLaren, Walter W 119 

Malaria Commission of League of 

Nations 109-110 

Mandates, see League of Nations, 
mandated territories. 

Maritime flag 83 

Maritime navigation 79-83 

Maritime ports: 

convention and statute 82-83 

Marmora, Sea of 97 

Memel convention 212 

Mesopotamia, see Iraq. 
Methodology, Preparatory Com- 
mittee on Statistical 56 

Mexico: 

nonmember of League of Nations 20 
observer at International Eco- 
nomic Conference 47 

Millikan, Robert Andrews 113 

Minorities, see League of Nations. 
Mixed Commission on the Greco- 
Turkish Exchange of Popula- 
tions 32 

Mixed Greco-Bulgarian Emigration 

Commission 68 

Monaco: 

application for admission to 

League of Nations 20 

Monroe doctrine: 
Art. 21 of Covenant of League 

with reference to 16 

request of Costa Rica for League 

interpretation of 15-16 

Monthly Bulletin of Statistics 44 

Morgenthau, Henry 147 

Motion pictures 122 

Motta, Giuseppe 215 

Murray, Gilbert A 113 

Mutual Assistance and Nonaggres- 

sion, Model Conventions 203 

Nansen, Dr. Fridtjof : 

identity certificates inaugurated 
by 79 

refugee work 145, 146 

National Research Council 120 



Xll 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Nauru, mandate 156 

Naval Armaments, Conference for 

Limitation of 191 

Navigable waterways, convention 

and statute 80-82 

Navigation, inland: 

committees 83, 84 

conference, Paris, 1925 83 

conventions 83 

Danube and Rhine inquiries .... 84-85 
vessel measurements, conven- 
tion, 1925 85 

Nejd, Sultanate of: 

nonmember of League of Nations 20 

Netherlands: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 

member of League of Nations. . . 14 

neutral in World War 1 

New Zealand: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 

mandate for Western Samoa .... 156 

member of League of nations 15 

Nicaragua: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 

member of League of Nations. . . 15 

Ninchich, Momchilo 19, 215 

Norway: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 

member of League of Nations .. . 15 

neutral in World War 1 

Notable Books 118 

Oder River system 95-96 

Office international d'Hygidne pub- 

lique 98-99 

Official Vital Statistics 100 

Opium: 

Advisory Committee on Traffic 
in Opium, see League of Na- 
tions. 

Cavazzoni proposal 136 

commission of inquiry on Persian 

production 135-136 

conferences 128 

control of manufacture 130 

conventions of 1912 and 1925, 

ratifications 128-129 

Far Eastern control 132-133 

First Conference 132-133 

illicit traffic 134-135 

medical and scientific uses of . . . . 134 

Permanent Central Board 130-131 

Persian Government's efforts to 

curtail production of 135 

proposed conference 133 

Second Conference — 

United States payment for 39 

United States resolution of 

March 2, 1923 134 

Organisation of Public Health Serv- 
ices 100 



PAGE 

Palestine, mandate 61, 158 

Panama: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations. . . 15 
Paraguay: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations. . . 15 

Passport Conferences 77-79 

Pasteur Institute, Paris 108 

"Pax Romana" 119 

Peace: 

Covenant provisions for main- 
tenance of 2-5 

Peace Conference, Paris, 1919: 
appointment of Commission on 

the League of Nations 1 

committee of ports, waterways 

and railways 70 

Covenant of League of Nations 

accepted by 1 

mandates 153 

minorities treaties 163 

resolution on creation of League 

of Nations 1 

Permanent Advisory Commission 

on Armaments 190 

Permanent Advisory Commission 
on Military, Naval and Air 

Questions 177 

Permanent Committee for Ports 

and Maritime Navigation 79 

Permanent Committee for Trans- 
port by Rail 86-87 

Permanent Committee on Electric 

Questions 89 

Permanent Court of International 
Justice, see Court of Interna- 
tional Justice, The Permanent. 
Permanent Mandates Commission, 

see League of Nations. 
Permanent Technical Hydraulic 
System Commission of the 

Danube 71 

Persia: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations. . . 15 

opium production 135 

Peru: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations. . . 15 
Poland: 

agreement with Danzig of Oc- 
tober 24, 1921 177 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
convention with Danzig, Nov. 9, 

1920 175 

dispute with Lithuania 207-209 

Germano-Polish convention 211 

Jaworzina frontier dispute 209 

member of League of Nations. . . 15 
minority dispute in Lithuania. . . 168 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Poland — Continued. 

postal service in Danzig 178-179 

relations with Danzig 177-178 

treaty with Danzig, Aug. 4, 1928 179 

Political questions, Committee on 23 

Popular arts 122 

Portorose Conference of Succession 

States, 1921 86 

Portugal: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations. . . 15 

Preparatory Commission for Dis- 
armament Conference, see 
League of Nations, disarma- 
ment conference. 

Press Experts Conference, see 
League of Nations, Conference 
of Press Experts. 

Private Law, International Insti- 
tute for Unification of 184-185 

Prostitution, see League of Nations, 
Women and Children, Traffic 
in. 

Protocol for pacific settlement of 

international disputes 22 

Publicity, memorandum on 41 

Rabies, see League of Nations, 

Health Organization. 
Radiotelegraph Conference, Wash- 
ington, 1927 89 

Railroad disputes 96-97 

Railways, convention and statute 

on international regime of . . . .87-88 

Rault, M. V 173 

Red Cross organizations: 

Art. 25 of Covenant regarding. . 98 

refugee work of American 147 

Red Cross Societies, League of ... . 100 
Relief Union, see League of Nations, 

International Relief Union. 
Reparation: 

London conference, August, 

1924 16, 187 

Reparation Commission: 

resolution on reconstruction of 

Hungary, Oct. 17, 1923. 63 

Rhine navigation 85 

Rist, Charles: 

report to Council on economic 

situation of Austria 62 

Road traffic 91-92 

Rockefeller, John D., Jr.: 

gift of League library 40 

Rockefeller Foundation, Interna- 
tional Health Board 105 

Rumania: 

agrarian law 167 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 

Hungarian property rights in 167 

member of League of Nations. . . 15 



PAGE 

Rumania — Continued. 

Mixed Hungarian and Rumanian 
Arbitral Tribunal 213 

railway disputes 96 

Russia, see Soviet Union. 

Saar Basin, see League of Nations. 

Safety at sea: 

international convention on, Lon- 
don, 1914 80 

proposed conference 80 

St. Germain, Treaty of 160, 193 

Salvador: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations ... 15 

San Marino: 

application for admission to 
League of Nations 20 

Sanitary conventions, 1907, 1926. .98, 104 

Sarrail, General 162 

Schramm, Prof. Jacob R 120 

Scialoja, Vittorio 185 

Science and bibliography: 

international convention of 
March 15, 1886 120 

Scientific property, protection of. 123-124 

Seipel, Premier 59, 60 

Sera, standardization of: 

conferences on 107-108 

Serb-Croat-Slovene State: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 

dispute with Albania 209 

member of League of Nations .. . 15 

Sevres, Treaty of, August 10, 1920 153 

Siam: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations. . . 15 

Singapore Bureau of Epidemio- 
logical Intelligence 104 

Slavery convention, Sept. 25, 1926 22,162 

Sleeping sickness, see League of 
Nations, Health Organiza- 
tion. 

Smallpox commission 100 

Smith, Jeremiah E., Jr.: 

Commissioner-General of the 
League of Nations for Hungary 64 

Somervell, Major Brehon B 84 

South Africa, Union of: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
mandate for Southwest Africa. . . 156 
member of League of Nations. . . 15 

Soviet Union: 

Eastern Carelia dispute 209 

refugees in 146 

Spain: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations. . . 15 

Statistics: 

commission appointed by Coun- 
cil at Rome, 1920 43 



XIV 



INDEX 






43 



56 



56 
125 



28 



69 



PAGE 

Statistics — Continued. 

conference on international co- 
operation in, London, 1919. . . . 
economic — 

international conference for 

unification of, 1928 

Preparatory Committee on 
Statistical Methodology .... 

intellectual 

international institute of — 

meeting at Cairo, 1927 

meeting of Central Banks for 
study of, Paris, April, 1928 . . . 

Stephens, George W 173 

Straits Commission 97-98 

Stresemann, Dr. Gustav 19 

Students' Organizations, Interna- 
tional 119 

Sudan: 

invitation to accede to conven- 
tions of League of Nations. ... 21 
Supreme Council of the Allied Pre- 
miers: 
appeal for financial assistance 

by Austria 59 

Supreme Economic Council 44 

Supreme War Council 44 

Sweden: 

Aaland Islands dispute 207 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations. . . 15 

neutral in World War 1 

Switzerland : 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations .. . 15 

neutral in World War 1 

Syria: 

bombardment of Damascus 161 

mandate 155 

refugees in 146 

Szent-Gotthard incident 200 

Tariff nomenclature 57-58 

Tariffs, Custom: 

administrative protectionism. ... 51 
effect of on international trade. . 50 

hides and bones 52 

kinds of 50 

methods of establishment 50 

reduction of 50, 51 

Tax evasion 70 

Taxation, double 69-70 

Telegraphic Conference, Paris, 1925 89 

Ter Meulen scheme 59 

Titanic disaster 80 

Torriente y Peraza, Cosme de la. . . 215 
Traffic in Women and Children, see 
League of Nations, Women and 
Children, Traffic in. 



PAGE 

Transit, see League of Nations, 
Organization for Communica- 
tions and Transit. 
Transit of electric power, conven- 
tion, 1923 90 

Trans-Jordania, mandate 153-154 

Treaty Series 41-42 

Trianon, Treaty of: 

Arts. 239, 304 96, 213 

Tuberculosis, see League of Na- 
tions, Health Organization. 
Turkey: 

Iraq boundary dispute 210 

mandated territories 153 

mixed commission on Greco- 
Turkish exchange of popula- 
tions 32 

nonmember of League of Nations 20 
treaty of Sevres, August 10, 1920 153 

Unfair competition 55-56 

Union of International Associations 112 
Union of Socialist Soviet Repub- 
lics, see Soviet Union. 
United States: 

correspondence with the League 

of Nations 19-20 

League of Nations — 

payments to Secretariat 39 

loan to Greek Government 66 

member of Brussels International 

Financial Conference, 1920 44 

member of naval armament con- 
ference 191 

member of Office international 

d'Hygiene publique 98 

nonmember of League of Na- 
tions 20 

resolution of March 2, 1923, on 

opium 134 

Universal Postal Union 35 

Universal Sanitary Convention, 

Rome, 1907 98 

University Exchanges in Europe. ... 119 
University relations: 

coordination of studies, meeting 

of experts, 1928 119 

exchange of professors and stu- 
dents 119 

International University Infor- 
mation Office 117 

national university offices 118 

scholarships 119 

students' organizations, list of . . . 119 
University relations, see League of 
Nations, Intellectual Cooper- 
ation, Committee on. 
Upper Silesia: 

German minority schools in 169 



INDEX 



xv 



PAGE 

Upper Silesia — Continued. 

German-Polish convention on 
administration of 211 

Uruguay: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations. . . 15 



Venezuela: 

budget unit of League of Nations 36 
member of League of Nations. . . 15 

neutral in World War 1 

Versailles, Treaty of: 

armament forces of Germany 

regulated by 18 

Art. 119 with regard to man- 
dates 152 

League of Nations formed as 

result of ratifications of 13 

obligations of Danzig under 65 

Vessel measurement 85-86 

Veterinary questions, subcommit- 
tee of experts on 52-53 

Vilna, dispute over 208 

Visas, passport 78 

War: 

Briand-Kellogg pact for renunci- 
ation of 192 



PAGE 

War — Continued, 
draft model of treaty for pre- 
vention of 204 

Western Samoa, mandate 156, 161 

Westerplatte munitions depot 176 

Wilson, Woodrow 1 

Wireless station for League of Na- 
tions 89 

Women and Children, Traffic in: 

conferences on 136-137 

see also League of Nations. 
Women's International League for 

Peace and Freedom 141 

World Economic Conference, see 
International Economic Con- 
ference. 
World Student Christian Federa- 
tion 119 

World Union of Jewish Students. . . 119 
World War, 1914-18: 

armistice, conclusion of 1 

League of Nations an objective of 1 

neutral states in 1 

World's Young Women's Christian 

Association 141 

Wright, Dr. C. T. Hagberg 118 

Zahle, Herluf 215 

Zeligowski, Genl 207, 208 



34 1% 0(q 



•V